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Unit 1 Vocab

AP Human Geography

TermDefinition
Natural Landscape (Physical Attributes) Physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities
Possibilism How humans adjust to the challenges posed by the physical environment
Region Area of Earth distinguished by distinctive combinations of cultural and physical features
Formal / Uniform Region An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional / Nodal Region Region defined by particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Perceptual / Vernacular Region Region that only exists as an idea or identity; not physical object
Map Scale Shows how much the true size of an area has been narrowed down to fit on a flat surface
Spacial Interaction Depends on distance between places and movement or flows involving human interaction
Distortion Abnormal or unrealistic representation of Earth's features and characteristics on a map
Geographic Information System (GIS) Computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data; uses geocoding to calculate relationships between objects on a map's surface
Global Positioning System (GPS) System that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth using several satellites in orbit
Grid System Systems of intersecting lines and spaces that help you pinpoint locations on maps
Latitude / Parallel Imaginary lines around the Earth that is parallel to the equator
Longitude / Meridian Imaginary lines around the Earth that are parallel to the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line
Prime Meridian Line at 0 degrees longitude which passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England
International Date Line Imaginary line at 180 degrees longitude that runs from the north to the south pole and demarcates backward calendar day from the next
Equator Imaginary line at 0 degrees latitude dividing the earth into the northern and southern hemisphere
Map Flat model of Earth's surface (or parts of it) that shows more detail and is more mobile than a globe
Thematic Map A type of map that displays one or more variables within a specific area
Cartogram Map The size of a location is based on a particular defined characteristic
Dot Map Represent quantities or occurrences; are placed on the map in the approximate location of the occurrence
Chloropleth Map A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.
Isoline Map A thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value
Mental Map A map which represents the perceptions and knowledge a person has of an area
Model A representation designed to show the structure of an object, system, or concept
Map Projection A way of representing a round 3D earth on a flat surface
Remote Sensing A geographic technique that monitors the Earth's surface using modern techonology
Time Zones New time zone for every 15 degrees west; 24 time zones ; allows time to follow with rotation of earth
Built Landscapes Area of land that shows the effects of features and patterns of human occupation
Sequent Occupance Shows how humans interact with the environment impacting it culturally
Cultural Attributes / Cultural Landscape Cultural features (language, religion, food, climate)
Arithmetic Density Total number of people in an area
Physiological Density Number of people per area unit suitable for agriculture
Cultural Diffusion Adoption of cultural elements from a place of origin to a wider area
Cultural Hearth A major culture's place of origin
Relocation Diffusion Spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Expansion Diffusion Spread of a trend among people from one area to another
Hierarchical Diffusion Spread of an idea from people of authority to other people of power
Contagious Diffusion Rapid, widespread movement of a characteristic throughout population spread without relocation
Stimulus Diffusion Spread of a unrevealed principle even though the characteristic fails to diffuse
Absolute Direction Cardinal direction (north, south, east, west)
Relative Direction Directions based on people's perception of places (left, right, up, down)
Dispersion Spread of a phenomenon over an area that shows how far things are spread out
Concentration The spread of something over a given area
Agglomerated Closer together, clustered, or focused towards a centerpoint
Absolute Distance Distance that can be measured with a standard unit length (mile or kilometer)
Relative Distance Measure of distance including costs of overcoming friction of absolute distance separating 2 places
Distribution Arrangement of phenomenon across Earth's surface
Environmental Determinism Approach made by Humboldt and Ritter (19th century geographers) who concentrated on how physical environment caused social development
Location Where is it? The position that something occupies on Earth
Absolute Location Uses coordinates from latitude and longitude or addresses
Relative Location Location in reference to other known locations
Site A physical character of place
Situation Location of a place relative to other places
Toponym Place name
Pattern Geometric or regular arrangement of something in an area
Linear Pattern Straight pattern or a pattern along straight lines
Centralized Pattern Clustered or concentrated at a certain place
Random Pattern Pattern without a specific order of logic behind arrangement
Created by: mjys02