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WH: Chapter 5

Conflict and Absolutism in Europe

heretic one who does not conform to established doctrine
armada a fleet of warships
inflation a rapid increase of prices
conflict opposition; a fight, battle, or war
policy an overall plan embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures of a governmental body
divine right of kings the belief that the king gets his power from God and not from his subjects
Puritans English Protestants who believed that the Church of England needed further reform and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship
Cavaliers supporters of King Charles I in the English Civil War
Roundheads supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War
natural rights rights with which all humans are born, including the rights to life, liberty, and property
commonwealth a nation, state, or other political unit founded on law and United by agreement for and by the people
restoration a bringing back to a former position or condition
convert to change from one belief to another
absolutism a political system in which a ruler holds total power
boyar a Russian noble
czar Russian for caesar; the title used by Russian Emperors
stability the state of being stable; strong enough to endure
emerge to become manifest; to become known
authority power; person in command
Mannerism an artistic movement that emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s; it marked the end of the Renaissance by breaking down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation
baroque an artistic style of seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements
decline a change to a lower state of level
drama a composition that tells a story, usually involving conflicts and emotions, through action and dialogue and typically designed for the theater
creative imaginative