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Urinary System

LOM Chapter 7 Vocabulary

abscess collection of pus
acetone ketone body produced in abnormal ammounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells
albuminuria protein in the urin
antidiurectic hormone pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excess loss of water; also called vasopressin
anuria suppression of urine formation by the kidney
arteriole small artery
azotemia excess of nitrogenous waate products in the blood; uremia
bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
bowman capsule enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus (ball of capillaries) in the outer section (cortex) of the kidney
caliceal pertaining to a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber) in the central portion of the kidney
caliectasis dilation or widening of a calyx; this occures when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis
calyx; calyces cut-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney)
catheter tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex outer region of an organ; renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney
cortical pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ)
creatinine nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine
creatinine clearance test measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney
cystectomy excision (removal) of the urinary bladder
cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder
cystoscopy visual (endoscopic) examination of the urinary bladder
cystostomy new opeing of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
diabetes insipidus abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland; patients experience polyuria (excessive urination) and plydipsia (excessive thirst)
diabetes mellitus abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreas; this leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine)
diuresis increased excretion of urine by the kidneys; a diuretic is an agent that increases diuresis, such as tea, coffee or water
dysuria painful urination
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces
electrolyte chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water; examples are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-)
enuresis bedwetting; literally, "in urine."
erythropoietin hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow
essential hypertension high blood pressure due to no apparent cause
filtration process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material
glomerular pertaining to a glomerulus
glomerulonephritis inflammation of glomeruli in the kidney
glomerulus; glomeruli tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney; as blood flows through each glomerulus, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream
glycosuria sugar in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
hemodialysis removal of waste materials (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning; blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes b4 sending the blood back into the body thru a vein
hilum depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as the kidney and lung; it is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ
hydronephrosis abnormal condition of excess backup of fluid (urine) in the kidney that lies between (interstitium) the nephron (functional units)
interstitial nephritis inflammation of the tissue in the kidney
ketonuria presence of ketones in the urine; common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur in any time the body begins to break down fatter tissue to provide energy as in starvation
Created by: murielsclark