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Skeletal Tissue

TermDefinition
There are two types of bone: Compact and spongey
Compact/cortical bone is... and has... harder and denser than spongy bone and forms the tough outer shell of each bone. in compact bone there are little or no spaces and gaps within the matrix.
Bones main constituent is ___________, which is composed of... matrix, composed of inorganic (hydroxyapatite) and organic (type I collagen) substances
Compact bone feature: Osteons the predominant feature of compact bone, they are cylindrical structures consisting of onion-like concentric rings of matrix surrounding a central canal.
Compact bone feature: Lamellae rings of matrix that make up the osteon
Compact bone feature: Central Haversian Canal a channel through the core of each osteon; it permits the passage of neurovascular structures.
Compact bone feature: Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal) running 90 degrees from the central canals they connect them with the periosteum
Compact bone feature: Lacunae tiny cavities located between the lamellae; they contain osteocytes (bone cells)
Compact bone feature: Canaliculi tiny canals that radiate from the lacunae to the central canals for the transport of nutrients.
Compact bone feature: Circumferential lamellae a continuous layer of lamellae that run around the outer surface of the bone, lying beneath the periosteum.
Compact bone feature:Periosteum A fibrous layer that covers the exterior of each bone; it has a rich neurovascular supply.
Compact bone feature: Interstitial located between complete osteons; they are the remnants of older partially reabsorbed osteons.
Compact bone: perforating and central canals Perforating or Volkmann’s canals traverse the compact bone, connecting the central canals of the osteons to the neurovascular supply of the periosteum.
Spongy/trabecular bone lies deep to an outer shell of compact bone and is formed by branching and anastomosing bars and plates of osseous tissue.
What occupies spongy bone matrix? There are no blood vessels in the spongy bone matrix but instead they occupy the bone marrow spaces.
Spongy bone's function There are no blood vessels in the spongy bone matrix but instead they occupy the bone marrow spaces.
Spongy bone feature: lamellae layers of bone matrix that form the trabeculae.
Spongy bone feature: lacunae tiny cavities located between the lamellae; they contain osteocytes (bone cells).
Spongy bone feature: canaliculi tiny canals that radiate from the lacunae to the spaces between the trabeculae for the transport of nutrients.
Spongy bone feature: trabeculae irregularly shaped spicules of bone a few lamellae thick
Spongy bone feature: Bone marrow space cavities located between the trabeculae; they contain bone marrow and neurovascular structures.
Flat bones are formed by... two thin sheets of compact bone, separated by a thin layer of spongy bone. Bone marrow fills the spaces between the trabeculae of the spongy bone.
What bones are considered flat bones? The frontal, hip, lacrimal, nasal, occipital, parietal, ribs, scapula, sternum and vomer bones are all flat bones.
What are the flat bones of the cranium united by? The flat bones of the cranium are united by fibrous joints known as sutures.
craniofacial bones form a protective cover for the brain and sense organs, and provide a framework for the face.
craniofacial bones are composed of _____________ bones that are connected by what? are composed of individual bones that, with a few exceptions, are connected to each other by solid bone (synostoses), by bone sutures, or by primary cartilaginous joints (synchondroses) to form a whole
The cranium is comprised of (#) bones. Name bones Comprised of 8 bones: 1 occipital bone. 2 temporal bones. 1 sphenoid bone. 1 frontal bone. 2 parietal bones. 1 ethmoid bone
The face comprised of (#) bones. Name bones: Comprised of 12 bones: 2 maxillae. 2 palatine bones. 2 zygomatic bones. 2 nasal bones. 2 lacrimal bones. 1 vomer. 2 inferior nasal conchae.
Which bones isn't considered part of the cranium but is considered part of the face? The mobile lower jaw (mandible) is not considered as part of the cranium but is consider a facial bone.
A long bone is formed by what? A long bone is formed by a hollow tubular diaphysis that is expanded at either end to form articular epiphyses.
Long bones are located where? Name bones Long bones are located in the limbs and have multiple centers of ossification. The humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula and metatarsals are all long bones.
Diaphysis forms what in the long bone? And what is it formed by? forms the shaft of a long bone. It is a long cylindrical structure, which is hollowed to form the medullary cavity and is filled with bone marrow. It is formed by compact bone and a small amount of spongy bone at the extremities
Epiphysis forms what in the long bone? the expanded heads located at either end of the diaphysis. They are coated in compact bone and filled with spongy bone. Bone marrow fills the spaces between the trabeculae of the spongy bone.
Epiphyseal line is a plate of compact bone that lies between the diaphysis and epiphysis.
Epiphyseal line allows the diaphysis to do what? It is a remnant of a plate of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early adulthood; the cartilage is replaced with bone in early adulthood when growth stops.
Long bone classification and examples Long bones have a long shaft that is cylindrical in cross section and usually expanded at either end. They act as levers for the skeletal muscles to act upon. Examples: Humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula and metatarsals.
Short bone classification and examples Short bones are generally equal in width and length. They allow small amounts of varied movement when articulated together. Examples: Carpal and tarsal bones.
Flat bone classification and examples Flat bones are smooth and thin; they protect the soft internals and provide attachments for muscles. Example: Sternum, scapula, parietal bone, occipital bone, temporal bone, frontal bone, ribs and hip bone.
Irregular bone classification and examples Irregular bones cannot be classified in any of the above categories and are elaborate in shape. Example: The coccyx, ethmoid, hyoid, inferior nasal concha, mandible, maxilla, palatine, sacrum, sphenoid, temporal, vertebrae and zygomatic bone
Sesamoid bone classification and examples Sesamoid bones form within the tendons of some muscles as they pass over joints. They act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect. Example: Patella and accessory bones of the foot.
Sesamoid bone is made up of: Each has a thin outer layer of compact bone and is filled with spongy bone.
Sesamoid bone function: They help to protect the tendon and increase the leverage of the muscle.
Example of sesamoid bone The patella, medial and lateral sesamoid bones of the foot and the accessory bones are all sesamoid bones.
Examples of short bones The carpal and tarsal bones are all short bones
Bony Feature: Crest, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. A crest is a narrow ridge on a bone. Examples Femur: intertrochanteric crest. Hip bone: iliac crest.
Bony Feature: Eminence, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. An eminence is an elevation or projection from a bone. Examples Tibia: intercondylar eminence.
Bony Feature: epicondyle, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. An epicondyle is a rounded bony projection located on or superior to a condyle; it usually serves as an attachment point for ligaments.
Bony Feature: epicondyle examples Examples: Femur: medial epicondyle, Femur: lateral epicondyle, Humerus: medial epicondyle. Humerus: lateral epicondyle.
Bony Feature: fossa, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. A fossa is a shallow, broad or elongated pit on a bone.
Bony Feature: fossa example Examples Hip bone: iliac fossa. Humerus: coronoid fossa. Humerus: olecranon fossa. Humerus: radial fossa. Lacrimal bones: lacrimal fossa. Occipital bone: condylar fossa. Scapula: glenoid fossa. Scapula: infraspinous fossa. Scapula: subscapular fo
Bony Feature, Fovea, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. A fovea is a small pit or depression in a bone. Example Femur: fovea of head.
Bony Feature, Line, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. The trochanters are two massive bony processes unique to the femur. Examples Femur: greater trochanter. Femur: lesser trochanter.
Bony Feature, Process, projections that give attachments to muscles or ligaments A process is a pointed bony projection.
Bony Feature, Spine , Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. A spine is a sharp, pointed, narrow process of bone. Examples Hip bone: anterior inferior iliac spine. Hip bone: anterior superior iliac spine. Hip bone: ischial spine. Hip bone: posterior superior iliac spine. Scapula: spine.
Bony Feature, Trochanter Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. The trochanters are two massive bony processes unique to the femur. Examples Femur: greater trochanter. Femur: lesser trochanter
Bony Feature, Tuberosity, Projections that give attachment to muscles or ligaments. A tuberosity is a rough projection of bone for the attachment of muscles. Examples Tibia: tibial tuberosity. Hip bone: ischial tuberosity. Radius: tuberosity.
Bony Feature, Condyle, Projections that will articulate with other bones. A condyle is a rounded articular surface located at the end of a bone. Examples Femur: medial condyle. Femur: lateral condyle. Mandible: condylar process. Occipital bone: condyle. Tibia: medial condyle. Tibia: lateral condyle.
Bony Feature, facet, Projections that will articulate with other bones. A facet is a smooth, slightly concave or convex articular surface. Examples Vertebra C4: inferior articular facet. Vertebra C4: superior articular facet. Vertebra T6: costal facet.
Bony feature, head, Projections that will articulate with other bones. The head is the prominent expanded end of a bone. Examples Fibula: head. Femur: head. Humerus: head. Radius: head. Rib 1: head. Rib 6: head.
Bony Feature, Canal, Depressions that allow the passage of vessels. A canal is a tubular passageway through bone. Examples Atlas (C1): vertebral foramen. Maxillary bones: infra-orbital canal. Sphenoid bone: optic canal.
Bony Feature, Fissure, Depressions that allow the passage of vessels. A slit through a bone. Example: Sphenoid bone: superior orbital fissure.
Bony Feature, Foramen, Depressions that allow the passage of vessels. A foramen is a round hole through a bone. Examples Foramen lacerum. Hip bone: obturator foramen. Jugular foramen. Occipital bone: foramen magnum. Sphenoid bone: optic foramen. Temporal bones: mastoid foramen. Vertebra C4: transverse foramen.
Bony Feature, Meatus, Depressions that allow the passage of vessels. A meatus is the opening of a canal through a bone. Examples Temporal bones: external acoustic meatus. Temporal bones: internal acoustic meatus.
Bony Feature, Sinus, Depressions that allow the passage of vessels. A sinus is a cavity or recess in a bone. Examples Maxillary sinus. Frontal sinus. Ethmoidal sinus. Sphenoid sinus.
Bony Feature, Sulcus,Depressions that allow the passage of vessels. A sulcus is a bony groove for a tendon, nerve or blood vessel. Example: Humerus: sulcus for ulnar nerve.
Created by: kjohnson1389