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Anatomical Language

Skin The skin as a whole is considered the largest organ of the body and is composed of two main layers attached to a hypodermis base
Skin Functions The skin has many different functions including thermoregulation, protection, metabolic functions, and sensation.
Epidermis the outer layer of skin consisting of mainly specialized epithelial cells called keratinocytes that produce a tough protein called keratin; there are no blood vessels in the epidermis
dermis much thicker than the epidermis, it lies immediately beneath it and consists of a collagen rich connective tissue responsible for the pliability and strength of skin; it is attached to the underlying hypodermis.
hypodermis not part of the skin, it is a subcutaneous connective tissue that lies beneath the dermis and stores adipose tissue.
There are __________ major anatomical planes: _______, _______, and _________. There are three major anatomical planes: axial, coronal, and sagittal.
saggital plane/midsaggital plane cuts the body vertically, into left and right portions.
coronal plane/frontal plane cuts the body vertically, into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
axial plane/transverse plane cuts the body horizontally, into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
anterior/ventral Towards the front of the body, in front of. E.g. The sternum lies anterior to the heart
posterior/dorsal Towards the back of the body, behind. E.g. The heart lies posterior to the sternum.
superior/cranial Above, on top of. E.g. The heart lies superior to the diaphragm.
inferior/caudal Below, underneath. E.g. The diaphragm lies inferior to the heart.
lateral Away from the mid line of the body, towards the sides. E.g. The lungs lie lateral to the heart.
medial Towards the mid line of the body, towards the middle. E.g. The heart lies medial to the lungs.
proximal Nearer to the trunk of the body. E.g. The shoulder is proximal to the elbow.
distal Furthest from the trunk of the body. E.g. The elbow is distal to the shoulder.
deep Away from the body surface, towards the inner body. E.g. The heart is deep to the sternum.
superficial Towards the external surface of the body. E.g. The sternum is superficial to the heart.
Axial area: abdominal region The abdominal region refers to the front and sides of the lower trunk
Axial area: cephalic region head
Axial area: cervical region neck
Axial area: cranial region cranium/skull area
Axial area: facial region face
Axial area: inguinal region refers to the area over the inguinal ligament, the groin.
Axial area: interscapular area between the two scapulae
Axial area: Lumbar region lower back
Axial area: Nuchal region the area over the nuchal ligament and the back of the neck.
Axial area: Pectoral region chest, the area over pectoralis major on the anterior thoracic wall.
Axial area: Perineal region perineum, lies between the pubic bone and the anus.
Axial area: Pubic region the area over the pubic bone/mons pubis.
Axial area: sacral region sacrum (tail bone area)
Axial area: sternal region sternum
Axial area: Thoracic region chest, refers to the upper half of the trunk over the thorax.
Axial area: umbilical region umbilicus, naval/belly button
Axial area: vertebral regrion spinal/vertebral column
Appendicular area: Upper limb Acromial refers to the area covering the acromion of the scapula on the superior aspect of the shoulder.
Appendicular area: Upper limb Antebrachial Forearm
Appendicular area: Upper limb Axillary armpit
Appendicular area: Upper limb Brachial refers to arm, from the shoulder to the elbow.
Appendicular area: Upper limb Carpal wrist
Appendicular area: Upper limb cubital elbow
Appendicular area: Upper limb dorsum of hand back of hand
Appendicular area: Upper limb pulmar palm of hand
Appendicular area: Upper limb scapular scapula area
Appendicular area: Lower limb calcaneal heel
Appendicular area: Lower limb coxal hip
Appendicular area: Lower limb crural refers to the leg, from the knee to the ankle.
Appendicular area: Lower limb dorsum of foot top of foot
Appendicular area: Lower limb femoral thigh
Appendicular area: Lower limb gluteal refers to the area covering the gluteal muscles, the buttocks.
Appendicular area: Lower limb patallar refers to the area over the patella of the knee.
Appendicular area: Lower limb plantar sole of the foot
Appendicular area: Lower limb popliteal back of knee
Appendicular area: Lower limb tarsal refers to the area over the tarsal bones, the ankle.
Right upper quadrant of the abdomen contains: Liver. Gallbladder. Right kidney. Duodenum. Ascending colon. Transverse colon. Small intestine.
Left upper quadrant of the abdomen contains: Stomach. Spleen. Left kidney. Pancreas. Descending colon. Transverse colon. Small intestine.
Right lower quadrant of the abdomen contains: Appendix. Cecum. Ascending colon. Small intestine.
Left lower quadrant of the abdomen contains: Descending colon. Transverse colon. Small intestine.
There are two main cavities in the body: 1. dorsal 2. ventral
Dorsal cavity The dorsal body cavity is at the back of the body and is the smaller of the two cavities. It can be further divided into the upper and lower portions, the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal respectively;
Cranial cavity (part of the dorsal cavity) The upper portion of the dorsal cavity. it is bounded by the skull and contains the brain and meninges
Vertebral canal (part of the dorsal cavity) The lower portion. It is bounded by the vertebral column, intervertebral discs and surrounding ligaments and contains the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots.
Ventral body cavity The ventral body cavity is at the front of the body and is the larger of the two cavities.
ventral body cavity categories It can be further divided into three cavities, the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. The thoracic and abdominal cavities are divided by the diaphragm and the abdominal and pelvic cavities are continuous with each other.
Thoracic cavity (part of the ventral cavity) A large cavity found above the diaphragm. It is bound laterally by the ribs and the diaphragm inferiorly. It contains the mediastinum, pericardial and pleural cavities.
Mediastinum (part of the thoracic Cavity which is part of the larger ventral cavity) space found between the pleural cavities. Contains: esophagus, trachea, thymus, pericardial cavity and its contents, the great vessels of the heart and thoracic lymph nodes. It is bound anteriorly by the sternum and posteriorly by the vertebral column.
Pericardial Cavity (Part of the Thoracic cavity which is part of the larger ventral cavity) A thin cavity surrounding the heart; it is the potential space between the two layers (visceral and parietal) of serous pericardium. It contains fluid that facilitates the free movement of the heart.
Abdominal cavity (part of the ventral cavity) A large cavity found below the diaphragm. It contains the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands. It is bound superiorly by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and inferiorly by the pelvic cavity.
Pelvic cavity (part of the ventral cavity) A small cavity found below the brim of the pelvis. It contains the urinary bladder, genitals, sigmoid colon and rectum. It is bounded superiorly by the abdominal cavity, posteriorly by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis.
Created by: kjohnson1389
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