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WH: Chapter 4

The Age of Exploration 1500-1800

caravel a small, fast, maneuverable ship that had a large cargo hold and usually three masts with lateen sails
colony a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control
conquistador a leader in the Spanish conquest of the Americas
overseas beyond or across the sea
mercantilism a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17th century; it held that the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver
plantations a large agricultural estate
Middle Passage the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic ocean to the Americas
culture the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group
export to send a product or service for sale to another country
regime a government in power
peninsulare a person born on the Iberian peninsula; typically, a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe
creole a person of European descent born in Latin America and living there permanently
mestizo a person of mixed European and Native American descent
mulatto a person of mixed African and European descent
labor people with all their abilities and efforts
encomienda a system of labor the Spanish used in the Americas; Spanish landowners had the right, as granted by Queen Isabella, to use Native Americans as laborers
mita a labor system that the Spanish administrators in Peru used to draft native people to work
draft to select for some purpose; to conscript