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AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Causes/Etiology Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmitted when a body fluuid of an infected individual - blood, semen, vaginal secretions, or breast milk - is absorbed into the bloodstream of a healthy person. Excludes saliva.
Symptoms/Presentation Extremely low T-cell counts, increase susceptibility to infections and diseases.
Pathophysiology Presence of virus invokes the immune system to produce a variety of fighter cells, which include T-cell lymphocytes. HIV invades T-cells and destroy them to multiply. Weakens immune system.
Diagnosis (1) ELISA {blood analysis, Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, detect presence of antibodies in response to virus, effective 6 weeks after infection.}
Diagnosis (2) Western blot {specifically detects HIV antibodies, confirmation to ELISA.}
Treatment (1) Azidothymidine (AZT) {interferes w/ HIV replication, delays onset only, causes anemia & low white blood cells.} Dideocyinosine (DDI) {similar to AZT, causes pancreatitis & nerve problems.} Dideoxycytidine (DDC) {used w/ AZT, prevents HIV replication.}
Treatment (2) Erythropoietin {a synthetic hormone, stimulates erythrocyte production, counters anemia by AZT.} Interleukin-2 {increases T-cell production, used in HIV stage only.} Pentamidine {aerosol inhalant, prevents pneumocystis pneumonia (common infection.)}
Treatment (3) Trimethoprim & Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim/Septra) {antibiotics, prevent/treat pneumocystis pneumonia.} gp-160 {experimental vaccine, slows progress, not for prevention.)
Overview A disease that is characterized by an increasing vulnerability to many disorders, especially infections. The period between infection and development is about 10 years.
Created by: anita_300928