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Body Book Ch 12

Side B

Endocrine system all organs in the endocrine system are glands
Exocrine glands not part of endocrine system; secrete products into ducts that empty onto a surface or into a cavity EX: sweat glands
Endocrine glands ductless; produce & secret hormones, chemical substances with regulatory effect on activity of target cells or organs
Hormones endocrine glands secrete chemicals (__________) into the blood
Slow long lasting speed hormones general function of communication & control at a
Target cell hormone binds to a cell that has specific receptors for that hormone, triggering a reaction, this is called a
Nonsteroid hormones (first messengers) bind to receptors on the target cell membrane, triggering 2nd messengers to affect cell activity
Steroid hormones bind to receptors within the target cell nucleus & influence cell activity by acting on DNA (no second messenger)
Hormone receptor complex target cell nucleus is called
Homeostatic feedback hormone secretion is controlled by
Negative feedback mechanisms that reverse the direction of a change in system Ex: eat a meal BS goes up, pancreas releases insulin BS goes down
Positive feedback (uncommon) mechanisms amplify changes Ex: during pregnancy muscle contractions push baby through canal, they get stronger
Hypersecretion secretion of excess hormone
Hyposecretion insufficient hormone secretion
Polyendocrine disorders hyper- or hyposecretion of more than 1 hormone
Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful substances found in a variety of body tissues
Tissue hormone Prostaglandins (PGs) also known as
Respiration, BP, Gastrointestinal, Secretions, & Reproduction PGs influence many body functions
Pituitary gland 2 parts located in cranial cavity; size of a pea
Anterior pituitary Adenohypophysis
Adeno gland
Pituitary gland TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone), LH (Luteinizing hormone), GH (Growth hormone), & Lactogenic Hormone are major hormones of the
TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) stimulates growth of the thyroid gland; also stimulates it to secret thyroid hormone
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) produced in pituitary, stimulates growth of the adrenal cortex & stimulates it to secrete glucocorticoids
FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month, begins development of the eggs in ovary
LH (Luteinizing hormone) acts with FSH to stimulate estrogen secretion & follicle growth to maturity; causes ovulation, called ovulation hormone
Giganitism hypersecretion of GH (Growth Hormone) during childhood can cause
Acromegaly hypersecretion of GH (Growth Hormone) during adulthood causes
Dwarfism hyposecretion of GH (Growth Hormone) during childhood results in
PL (Prolactin) stimulate breast development during pregnancy & secretion after delivery
Posterior pituitary gland ADH (Antidiuretic hormone), OT (Oxytocin), & Aldosterone are hormones of the
ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) accelerates water retention decreases urine
Diabetes insipidus Hyposecretion of ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) causes __________, characterized by excessive volume of urine
OT (Oxytocin) stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract, releases breast milk into ducts (milk let down)
Hypothalamus OT (Oxytocin) is PRODUCED by
Aldosterone DECREASES URINE; is a mineralocorticoid
ANH increases urine
Hypothalamus actual production of ADH & Oxytocin occurs in __________, released by posterior pituitary
Brain structure hypothalamus is actually a __________, but influences endocrine functions
Temperature, appetite, & thirst hypothalamus controls many body functions related to homeostasis, such as
Thyroid gland that STORES a considerable amount of hormone
Thyroid gland
contain 3 atoms of iodine
Catabolism thyroid hormones accelerate
Metabolic rate thyroid hormones increases body
Calcitonin (CT) produced by thyroid; decreases the blood calcium concentration (decreases calcium); prevents hypercalcemia
has more target cells than ADH
Hyperthyroidism hypersecretion of thyroid gland hormones
Hypothyroidism hyposecretion of thyroid gland hormones
Goiters painless enlargement of thyroid caused by deficiency of iodine
Graves disease inherited form of hypothyroidism
Retardation hyposecretion of thyroid gland hormones during early development can cause
Myxedema hyposecretion of thyroid gland hormones in adulthood can cause
Different myxedema & Graves disease has __________ causes
Parathyroid gland PTH is a hormone of the
Neck Parathyroid gland is located in the
Adrenal cortex GCs(Glucocorticoids: Cortisol & Hydrocortisone), MCs (Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone) & Sex hormones of the
Glucocorticoids help maintain normal glucose concentration by increasing gluconeogenesis (increasing glucose level) also helps maintain BP & acts as inflammatory
Mineralocorticoids increase blood sodium & decrease potassium EX: Aldosterone
Adrenal Medulla Epi (Epinephrine) or adrenaline & NR (norepinephrine) are hormones of the
Stress adrenal medulla hormones help the body resist
Sympathetic nervous system adrenal medulla reinforces the effects of __________. (Your fight or flight response)
Pancreatic Islets Glucagon & Insulin are hormones of the
Glucagon increases BS level
Insulin decreases BS
Antagonists Glucagon & insulin are __________ of each other
Type 1 diabetes mellitus type from HYPOSECRETION of insulin; previously called IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) or juvenile-onset diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus type from target cell INSENSITIVITY to insulin; previously called NIDDM ( noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or AODM (adult-onset diabetes)
Cellular diabetes mellitus type 2 is a __________ problem
Ovaries secrete hormones, effects estrogen
Estrogen development of breasts & menstrual cycle
Testosterone interstitial cells of the testes secrete this male hormone; development, beard growth, changes voice during puberty
Thymus produces hormone thymosin
Thymosin plays important role in development of immune system
Mediastinum thymus is located in the __________ NOT THE NECK
Cortex & Medulla thymus is composed of a
Placenta functions as an endocrine gland temporarily during labor
Estrogen & Progesterone the hormones __________ maintain the pregnancy
Pregnancy the hormones released by placenta help detect
pineal small gland near roof of the third ventricle of the brain
Melatonin pineal gland secretes; inhibits ovarian activity & REGULATES the body's internal clock
Tropic hormones stimulate other endocrine glands
No insulin is produced type 1 diabetes mellitus cause: the beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are destroyed & eventually
Resistance of body cells to the action of insulin type 2 diabetes mellitus cause which may eventually lead to a decrease in insulin secretion
Created by: Stacey_Gantt5
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