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History of Geography

Basics to Human Geography Chapter 1 - History

Geography the description of the Earth's surface and the people and processes that shape its landscapes
Geography is bound by the physical Earth itself and extends down to the building level scale
Greeks wrote about the Earth being round and established mathematical principles
Greeks established three primary continents in the world
Three Primary Continents Europe, Asia, Libya(Africa)
Greek Philosophers Anaximander, Plato and Aristotle, Erastosthenes
Anaximander first person credited with making a map of the known world at that time
Anaximander's Map was the first scale map of the world. was made from information received from sailors accounts.
Innacuracy of Anaximander's Map considering the small scale portion, due to lack of available information
Aristotle and Plato furthered the beleif that the Earth was round
Erastosthenes credited with first using the term geography to describe this new area of scientific theory
Erastosthenes using two points on the Earth's surface he measured the circumference of the Earth
Romans maps became moree symbols of art and decoration rather than mathematical representations of the Earth's surface
Roman Philosopher Ptolemy
Ptolemy wrote geographica (Guide to Geography)
Geographica gave very detaied descriptions of cities and peoples of the Earth
Medieval Period - Europe was caught in the dark ages
Medieval Period - Islamic World it extended from Northern Africa to India. continued to build upon the foundations the Greeks had laid.
Islamic Philosopher Al-Idrisi
Al-Idrisi constructed a world map that incorporated expanding geographic knowledge on a worlwide scale
China was the center of the world in both science and development.
China Middle Kingdoms
Europe's Opportunity china's isolation which prevented the possibility of further geographical exploration. Allowing Euope to colonize other countries.
Chinese Cartographer Phei Hsiu
Phei Hsiu produced the first map of china
Chinese Explorer Zheng He
Zheng He might have traveled to the coast of Alaska or Russia. After his voyages China shut off its borders to the ouside world
The Age of Exploration Europe became the forefront of geography.
Marco Polo helped Europe take serious notice of the outside world
European Cartographer Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator the first to produce a world map, that showed with relative accuracy, the general outline of the continents
The Modern Period had two schools of thought founded and two societies
Royal Geographic Society founded in London
National Geographic Society founded in America
Two New Schools of Thought enviornmental determinism and possibilist
Environmental Determinism proposes that cultures are a direct result of where they exist
Environmental Determinism led by Carl Ritter, Ellen Semple, and Elsworth Huntington
Environmental Determinsm warmer climates tend to cause inhabitants to have a more relaxed attitude torward work and progress
Environmental Determinism led to beleive that Europeans and those from a more temperate climate were motivated, intelligent, and more culturally advanced than those from warmer climates
Environmental Determinism is incorrect.
Environmental Determinism school of thought attacked as being prejudicial
Possibilist suggests that humans are not a product of their environment but process the skills to modify their environment to fit human needs
Possibilist approach in which people can determine their outcomes
Today and Beyond geography is dominated by three technologies = GPS, GIS, and Aerial photgraphy
GPS Global Positioning Systems
GIS Geographic Information Systems
Aerial Photography allows geographers to see land use changing over time by comparing pictures of places from years past to the present
Global Positioning System satellite based system that allows us to determine the absolute location of places or geographic features with extreme accuracy with the use of longitude and latitude lines. Allows researchers to collect data quickly
Geographic Information Systems computer hardware and software which allows us to compile and compare data and creates maps where patterns and processes are superimposed
Created by: torresj
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