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French Revolution

Louis XIV "The Sun King", absolute monarch whose motto was "L'etat, cest moi" (I am the state)
Third Estate Commoners (98% of the population) - paid all the taxes
Palace of Versailles French king's residence that took 27 years to build, 20,000 acres of gardens, its construction left France in debt
Bourgeoisie Educated middle-class merchants and lawyers, but who lacked political rights before the revolution
Enlightenment 18th century philosophical movement that stressed power of human reason (thinking for one's self)
Louis XVI Last king of France before the revolution; failed to fix France's problems; executed for treason
Marie Antoinette Last queen of France; showed more concern for her clothes than French people starving
Estates General Assembly of all three "estates" in 1789, meant to raise money but angered the third estate
Tennis Court Oath Pledge taken by the Third Estate (and a few others) to write a new constitution for France
Declaration of the Rights of Man Document of the French Revolution, affirming equal rights for all men (except slaves and women)
Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789 - assault on a prison/armory (symbolic start of the Revolution)
Great Fear Peasant revolt against the nobility; upset over hunger and rumors of a coming attack by the nobles
March on Versailles 7,000 women marched demanding bread & forced the king and queen to return to Paris
Directory The Constitution of 1795 created this 5-person executive branch; overthrown by Napoleon
Second State Nobility (1.5% of the population) - paid no taxes
Constitution of 1791 This early document established a constitutional monarchy in France with Louis XVI at its head
America Revolution This rebellion against the British king inspired the French to question their own monarchy
Jacobins Radical activist club in the French Revolution & sponsors of the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror/Radical Republic Period of violence between June 1793-July 1794; mass executions of "enemies of revolution"
Maximilian Robespierre "The Incorruptible" - leader of the French Revolution during the Reign of Terror
Guillotine Device to carry out executions by decapitation ("off with their heads!")
Napoleon Corsican-born military leader, emperor of France, conqueror of Western Europe
Lycees Public schools opened by Napoleon - based on students' merit, not their wealth
Napoleonic Code Influential 1804 document that clearly stated the equal laws of France; provided freedom of religion
Battle of Waterloo Napoleon's final defeat ended his time as emperor and led to his exile on Saint Helena
First State Clergy/priests (0.5% of the population) - paid no taxes
Created by: ythzia