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Ancient India


India Triangular subcontinent extending from southern Asia into the Indian Ocean
Northern Plain 1. Lies just south of Himalaya Mountains 2. Watered by the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers
Deccan Plateau 1. Raised area of level land 2. Region is a hilly and arid, unproductive and sparsely populated
Costal Plains υ East and west of Deccan υ Historically this area is the most densely populated regions in India υ Rivers and heavy seasonal rains (monsoons) provide water for farmers υ Seas provide fish and highways for trade
Monsoons υ Defining feature of Indian life
India __________ derives its name from the Indus River
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa υ Known as the Harappan and Indus civilizations υ Elaborate drainage and sewer system
People of the Indus Valley Civilization υ Majority were farmers υ evidence of traders and merchants υ Religion was polytheistic with animals being worshipped
True Quality of civilization began to decline around 1750 B.C. T or F
Aryans u left no cities, statues or stone seals υ Warlike fair-skinned people from central Asia
Castes These divisions gave rise to a more complex system of _______ or social groups into which people are born and cannot change
Polytheistic Most of the religion for the civilization were _________.
Varuna god of order and creation
Agni god of fire and messenger to the gods
brahman; mysticism As time passed religion changed to the notion of a single spiritual power that resided in all things called ________ and also a movement toward __________.
rajahs Tribal leaders or ________ fought to control trade and territory
Hindu Over the years, _____ teachings were recorded in sacred texts such as the Vedas
Brahma; Vishnu; Siva The supreme universal soul assumes three forms: _____ the creator, _______ the preserver and _____ the destroyer
purify their souls What must people do to achieve union(moksha) with the universal spirit (brahman)?
reincarnation Soul purification requires many lifetimes so each person’s soul experiences rebirths
Buddhism υ Founded by Siddhartha Gautama υ Ultimately he developed a philosophy that rejected the Hindu caste system but accepted reincarnation
Four Noble Truths 1. Life is full of pain, suffering & sorrow 2. The cause of suffering is the desire of things 3. Only cure for suffering is overcoming desire 4. Way of overcoming desire is following Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path 1. Renounce material pleasure 2. Control emotions 3. Meditate selflessly 4. Respect all living creatures 5. Acquire knowledge 6. Cultivate goodness 7. Speak truth 8. Act generously
nirvana Through meditation, a person might achieve enlightenment and _____, the union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
Maurya Empire u the country’s first great empire υ Chandragupta ruler from 322 to 298 B.C. υ Asoka ruler from 273 to 232 B.C.
Chandragupta Maurya υ Conquered northern India and founded the Maurya Empire υ Established a highly centralized government modeled after Persian practice Had a secret police to report any opposition and specially trained women warriors guarding his palace
Asoka υ The grandson of Chandragupta υ After seeing the slaughter of war in the Kalinga region of the Deccan, he rejected war and became a devout convert of Buddhism υ Regarded as one of the world’s noblest rulers
Kingdoms of the Deccan υ The Deccan region was divided into many kingdoms υ Rulers were tolerant of foreigners and their religions υ Depended upon trade with Rome and China
The Golden age of the Gupta Empire υ Restored law and order but left much of the power in the hands of individual villages and city governments υ India became a center of learning with its culture spreading throughout eastern Asia
mathematics India was the most advanced of the ancient nations in ________
Medical Field Physicians diagnosed major diseases, prescribed medicinal plants, and placed sick in hospitals
Brahmans priestly class
Kshatryas warriors
Vaisyas Landowners and merchants (commoners)
Sudras peasants and artisans who were the darker-skinned natives conquered by the Aryans
untouchables Below these castes were millions of despised persons
Shakti Women were thought to have _______, a creative energy, which men lacked and marriage made the husband complete
Family Interests _____ ______ came before individual interests
sati υ High caste women were forbidden to marry after husband’s death and often were expected to become a _____ or virtuous woman
Village Life u Were the heart of life in India υ Decisions were made by the village headman and council υ Cooperated on local projects such as maintaining irrigation systems
Created by: lilgarvey