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Geographic Considerations isolated oceans to the east Gobi dessert to the north mountains to the west and south
iriigation Yellow and Yangtze river formed corridor river flooding
Xia Dynasty (2200 [?] to 1800 BC) legendary Dynasty = no historical evidence
King Zu Xia Dynasty Chinese king Narmer Legendary Dynasty
Designed flood control irrigation projects led to population increase cities emerging (CIVILIZATION) Xia Dynasty
Shang Dynasty first dynasty confirmed in historical record info from dynasty archaeological record oracle bones writings
Shang Goverment military was maintained to fight against nomadic steppe people N, W King ruled rural land while nobles ruled semi independent city states Paid tribute to king in exchange for food, trade
Shang dynasty society Very hierarchal, warlike Appear to have been herders transitioning to agricultural lifestyle Male dominated society
Group was more important than the individual Family was the center of everyday life Ancestor worship was common Isolation meant no trade; thus, Chinese were self-sufficient
Technology metallurgy Bronze metallurgy was outstanding iron casting chariots pictograph
technology Modern written Chinese language a direct descendant of this ancient language Language unified a large, diverse culture
Shang Religon Ancestor worship If not respected, they could bring a person bad luck Believed in an afterlife Kings buried with many valuable items Also buried with 100s of living servants Human sacrifice resorted to so spirits would be happy
Zhou Dynasty Nomadic people who invaded, overthrew Shang Absorbed Shang culture Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven Belief that rulers were the “son of heaven” and governed by divine right Dethronement of ruler proved that he had lost blessings of Gods to rule Bad things happening in society meant the ruler was losing divine support
mandate finished people were justified in revolting, overthrowing their king Theory explained and justified the demise of the Xia, Shang dynasties and supported legitimacy of present and future rulers
Zhou dynasty goverment Transition from city states of Shang to more centralized system Central government of Zhou exercised greater control over local government
Zhou Technology Built many roads, canals Coined money which helped spur trade (why?) Iron casting
iron weapons Iron weapons a huge advance over bronze wielding nomads Took Europe about 2000 years to catch up to Zhou
fall of the zhou Nomads from North, West sacked the capital and killed the king Nobles asserted local power, refusing to be ruled by surviving members of the royal family
during fall During this time, Sun Tzu wrote “The Art of War” Also during this time, Confucianism and Taoism emerged as philosophical schools of thought
The Quin (Chin) Dynasty Arose out of the Time of Warring States Took title of Shi Huangdi (First Emperor) Applied legalist philosophical methods to run state
Quin strategy destroy power of other war lords Strengthen the trunk, weaken the branches” Commanded nobility to live in capital city Confiscated lands, weapons of nobility
Quin Dynasty Silenced criticism Murdered hundreds of Confucian scholars Burned books NOT about medicine and farming
Centralized government power Massive forced labor on road building project Strict regulation of currency, law – even length of wagon axis
Quin Dynasty Results Unified virtually all of modern day China Building projects Great Wall Massive tomb
Great Wall of China Zhou rulers had built many small walls vs. nomads Shi Huangdi was determined to link walls Built by forced labor of 100,000s of peasants Choice: work or die Many who died became “fill” for wall Over 1,400 miles long (long way to go around
Hunagdi's tomb Terra Cotta soldiers created to serve emperor in death Individualized faces, based on real soldiers of army Location lost until 1974
Fall of Qin Dynasty High taxes & repressive government Scholars were either killed or forced into hiding Poor were worked to death on public projects Shi Huangdi died and a peasants revolt broke out; Han Dynasty set up in 202 BC
Han Dynasty Considered the greatest period of Chinese history Liu Bang, a former Qin policeman, became leader of peasant revolt 202 BC: revolt successful, Bang set self up as emperor
Han government Based on Confucian principles Goal was the unification of China Accomplishments Lowered taxes Established civil servi
Han gov continued Civil service created Jobs no longer depended on who you knew Initiated civil service exam, based on Confucian ideas Now, best person got job, not best connected
chineses refer to themselves today as.. Today, Chinese refer to selves as “People of Han”
technology of Han Paper, based on wood pulp (105 AD) Hydraulic power (bellows of steel mill) Steel, combining wrought and cast iron Scientific explanations of lunar & solar eclipses
silk road 138 BC, Han emperors ordered patrols of trade routes into Central Asia Began sending diplomats to other states Received envoys from Romans! Trade route reached Mediterranean shore
Fall of Han Emperors became weak, disinterested in fairness Peasant rebellions, nobles joined in Han lost control Civil war for next 350 years
Created by: emillikan