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WH: Chapter 2

The Renaissance in Europe

Mercenary a soldier who fights primarily for pay
Burgher a member of the middle class who lived in a city or town
Dominant to influence or control
Decline a change to a lower state or level
Humanism an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of humanities, which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy and history
Fresco painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints
Vernacular the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Perspective artistic techniques used to give the effect of three-dimensional depth to two-dimensional surfaces
Attain to gain or achieve
Style having a distinctive quality or form
Core basic or essential part
Circumstance a determining condition
Nobility the noble class or the body of nobles in a country.
monopoly exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
underwrite to show agreement with or to support by or as if by signing one's name to, as a statement or decision.
doge the chief magistrate in the former republics of Venice and Genoa.
revenue the income of a government from taxation, excise duties, customs, or other sources, appropriated to the payment of the public expenses.
urban having to do with cities
merchant a person who buys and sells commodities for profit; dealer; trader.
secular having to do with the world and not with religion
aristocrat a person who was born into a high social position or nobility.
usury the lending or practice of lending money at an exorbitant interest.
fleet the largest organization of warships under the command of a single officer.
republic a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote