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Module 6

EKG -- Chapter 15 Test

The heart is located here Media Stinum
How many chambers in the heart? Four
How many layers in the heart? Three
Epicardium Outermost layer of the heart
Endocardium Innermost layer of the heart
Myocardium Middle layer of the heart
Pericardium (not an actual layer) Sac surrounding the heart
Pericardial fluid Gel-like fluid within the pericardium
What divides the heart into left and right sides? Septum
What are the two upper chambers of the heart? Atria (plural); Atrium (singular)
What are the two lower chambers of the heart? Ventricles
Atria function as Receiving chambers
Ventricles function as Pumping chambers
How many valves are in the heart? Four
Which valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle? Bicuspid/Mitral valve
Which valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle? Tricuspid
Which valve separates right ventricle from the pulmonary arteries? Pulmonic valve
Which valve separates left ventricle from the aorta? Aortic valve
What are the two types of myocardial cells? Mechanical and electrical
What are electrical cardiac cells responsible for? Impulse formation and conduction (relaying impulses)
What are mechanical cardiac cells responsible for? Contraction and relaxation of the heart
What phase are myocardial cells in when at rest? Polarization phase
When the ions are moving what phase are the myocardial cells in? Depolarization phase
When ions in the myocardial cells are returning to the resting state what phase is this? Repolarization phase
When can cardiac cells not be stimulated by an electrical impulse and happens microseconds after repolarization? Refractory phase (aka period of rest between 2 cardiac cycles)
When the heart is contracting, which phase is this? Pumping, contracting or systole
When the heart is resting, which phase is this? Relaxation, refilling or diastole
Which unique property allows a myocardial cell to initiate and maintain rhythmic heart activity automatically? Automaticity
Which unique property allows a myocardial cell to RELAY an impulse to a neighboring cell? Conductivity
Which unique property allows a myocardial cell to RESPOND to an impulse? Excitability
Which unique property allows a myocardial cell to RESPOND to an impulse with a PUMPING ACTION? Contractility
What is the natural/primary pacemaker called? SA Node (sinoatrial node)
What is the inherent heart rate of the SA node? 60-100 bpm (normal range)
What is the job of the SA node? As the primary pacemaker of the heart is responsible for setting and keeping normal heart rhythm
What is the gatekeeper called? AV Node (atrioventricular node)
What is the job of the AV node? Prevent passage of abnormal impulses into the ventricles; also acts as back up pacemaker
What is the inherent heart rate of the AV Node? 40-60 bpm (low range)
Where is the AV Node located? Lower right atrium
From where is the impulse first initiated? From the SA node
Where is the impulse sent from the SA node? To the AV node
Where is the impulse sent after passing through the AV Node? Bundle of His
Where is the impulse sent after passing through the Bundle of His? Lt and Rt bundle branches (LBB;RBB)
Where is the impulse sent after passing through the LBB and RBB? Purkinje fibres
What is the inherent heart rate of the Purkinje fibres? 20-40 bpm; also acts as a 2nd back up to the SA and AV nodes but heart cannot survive at this rate for long
Once the impulse reaches the Purkinje fibres, does the impulse travel back to the SA node or die off? Impulse dies off and another impulse is generated from the SA node to repeat the process
What does depolarization cause? Contraction
Oxygen poor blood is called Deoxygenated blood
Which are the largest veins in the body? Inferior and Superior Vena Cava (IVC; SVC)
Deoxygenated blood enters the IVC and SVC and is received into the Right Atrium (RA)
From the RA blood flows through the Tricuspid Valve
From the Tricuspid valve blood flows to the Right Ventricle (RV)
From the RV blood is pumped through the Pulmonic valve
From the Pulmonic valve the blood is sent out of the heart via the Pulmonary arteries
From the Pulmonary arteries blood is returned to the Lungs
Oxygen rich blood is pumped from the lungs to the Pulmonary veins
From the Pulmonary veins blood is received into the Left Atrium (LA)
From the Left atrium blood flows through the Bicuspid Valve (mitral)
From the Bicuspid valve blood flows to the Left Ventricle (LV)
From the Left ventricle blood is pumped through the Aortic valve
From the Aortic valve the blood is sent out of the heart via the Aorta
From the Aorta blood is returned to the Body
What cells present in the lungs are responsible for taking in O2 and removing CO2? Alveoli
What is the Apex of the heart? Lower portion of the heart made up primarily of the left ventricle
What is the Base of the heart? Upper portion of the heart; contains large vessels (Pulmonary Arteries and Aorta)
Where is 2/3 of the heart positioned? Left side of the body
Where is 1/3 of the heart positioned? Right side of the body
Which is the most important and largest chamber of the heart? Left ventricle because it is responsible for pumping blood to the entire body
What is the purpose of the valves in the heart? Prevent backflow
Atrioventricular valves (AV valves) Tricuspid and Bicuspid/mitral valves
Semilunar valves (SL valves) Pulmonic and Aortic valves
Electrocardiogram (EKG) Recording of the electrical activity of the heart
Conduction System The number of times the heart beats in one minute
What purpose does the impulse have in the conduction system? As it reaches an area of the heart it tells that portion to contract
Why is there a 1/10 of a second delay before the impulse is relayed beyond the AV node? This fraction in time allows for the atria to empty before the ventricle contracts; valves close after the delay and prevent backflow
If Atrioventricular valves are opened what valves must be closed? Semilunar valves (Aortic and Pulmonic valves)
If Semilunar valves are open what valves must be closed? Atrioventricular valves (Tricuspid and Bicuspid valves)
What holds the valves in place? Chordae tendons and Papillary muscles
What is the movement of charged particles (ions) across the cell membrane, resulting in polarization or depolarization called? Action Potential
In a normal state of Polarization (resting) there are More + Ions outside the cell and more - ions inside the cell
In a normal state of Depolarization (contracting) there are More - Ions outside the cell and more + ions inside the cell
What is the baseline that represents no electrical activity called? Isoelectric line (aka flat line as in polarization)
A deflection away from the base line either up or down would be called? Wave (up is + and down is -)
Small gap between two waves that shows no electrical activity is called? Segment
A time period that consists of one wave and one segment is called? Interval
Two or more waves together form? Complex (QRS Complex)
One cardiac cycle = One heartbeat
One heartbeat = One systole + one diastole
What conditions can be diagnosed using an EKG machine? Arrhythmia, MI, Tachycardia, Bradycardia, confirm functionality of an external pacemaker
Created by: monkmaroni



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