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WH: Chapter 1

The World Before Modern Times: Pre-History-AD 1500

civilization the stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced
monotheism the belief in one God, rather than many
Medieval of or relating to the Middle Ages; the period of European history from about A.D. 500 to about 1500; too old to be useful or acceptable
Mandate of Heaven claim by Chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that they had direct authority from heaven to rule and keep order in the universe
oligarchy "the rule of the few"; a form of government in which a select group of people exercises control
democratic when people are governed by the "rule of many," or by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives
republic a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
culture the way of life a people follow
cycle a series of events than recur regularly and usually lead back to the starting point
classcial authoritative, traditional; relating to the literature, art, architecture, and ideals of the ancient Greek and Roman world
lineage group an extended family unit within a larger community
landed aristrocrats an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another
sultanate a state whose military and political power is held by the sultan
feudalism political and social order that developed during the Middle Ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Crusades military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
prosper to succeed in an activity; to have economic success
traditional established; customary
revival renewed attention to, or interest in, something