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ANTH 205 Quiz #4

TermDefinition
Chiefdom a formalized and centralized political system led by a chief
Chief A person who owns, manages, and controls the basic productive factors of the economy and has privileged access to strategic and luxury goods
Adjudication The settling of legal disputes through a formal, centralized authority
Barter The direct exchange of one commodity for another; it does not involve the use of money
Hierarchical Society A society in which some people have greater access than others to wealth, rank, status, authority, and power
Intensive Horticulture A method of crop production by irrigating, fertilizing, hoeing, and terracing hillsides
Kula A form of reciprocal exchange involving ceremonial items on the Trobriand Islands
Mana The Polynesian term referring to supernaturally significant powers
Office A formal position of authority in a group or society
Potlatch A form of redistributional exchange found among many Northwest Native American groups
Redistributional Economic Exchange A system that involves the exchange of goods and resources through a centralized organization
Regional Symbiosis The pattern in which a particular society resides in an ecological habitat divided into different resource areas that become interdependent
Strata Groups of equivalent statuses based on ranked divisions within a society
Sumptuary Rules Cultural norms and practices used to differentiate the higher-status groups from the lower-status groups
Tabu Th Polynesian term for a prohibition of specific behaviors
Theocracies A society in which people rule not because of their worldly wealth and power, but because of their place in the moral and sacred order.
Caste An endogamous social grouping into which a person is born and in which the person remains throughout his or her lifetime
Civilization A complex society that has dense urban centers, extensive food surpluses, a specialized division of labor, a bureaucratic organization or government, monumental art, and writing systems
Closed Societies A society in which social status is generally ascribed, rather than achieved
Command Economy An economic system in which the political elite makes the decisions concerning production, prices, and trade
Dowry Goods and wealth paid by the bride's family to the groom's family
Ecclesiastical Religions Religious traditions that develop in state societies and combine governmental and religious authority
Feudalism A decentralized form of political economy based on landed estates, which existed during different historical periods in agrarian societies
Galactic Polity A type of state that rules primarily through religious authorities and cosmologies
Intensive Agriculture The cultivation of crops by preparing permanent fields year after year, often using irrigation and fertilizers
Moral Economy An economy that involves reciprocity and redistribution among close kin and other villagers in a society
Peasants People who cultivate land in rural areas for their basic subsistence and pay tribute to elite groups
Purdah The Arabic term for the seclusion of women
Radial Polity A state that rules more directly through government and military officials that have more centralized control over various provinces and regions
Rites of Legitimation Rituals that reinforce the divine authority of a ruler
Theater State A limited form of state society in Southeast Asia
Tributary Mode The economic system of an agricultural society that uses tribute to extract labor, taxes, or other services from peasants
Tribute The payment of labor, taxes, or other services from one group to another
Universalistic Religion Religions whose spiritual messages apply to all of humanity
Industrial Society A society that uses sophisticated technology based upon machinery powered by advanced fuels to produce material goods
Mercantilism A system in which the government regulates the economy of a state to ensure economic growth, a positive balance of trade, and the accumulation of wealth, usually gold and silver
Industrialization The use of machines and the sophisticated technology to satisfy the needs of society by transforming raw materials into manufactured goods
Modernization Economic, social, political, and religious changes related to modern industrial and technological developments
Demographic Transition The decline of birth rates and death rates during later phases of industrialization
Primary Sector The sector of an industrialized economy that is devoted ti the extraction of natural resources
Secondary Sector The sector of an industrialized economy that is devoted to processing raw materials into manufactured goods
Tertiary Sector The sector of an industrialized economy devoted to services
Market Economy A pattern of economic exchange based on the value of goods and services determined by the supply and demand of these items
Capitalism An economic system in which natural resources, as well as the means of producing and distributing goods and services, are privately owned
Socialism An economic system in which the state owns the basic means of production
Oligopoly The result when economic organizations merge and dominate within an economy
Monopoly Capitalism A form of capitalism dominated by oligopolies that can reduce free competition through the concentration of capital
Multinational Corporation A transnational economic organization that operates in many different regions and is not necessarily associated with any one country
Feminism the belief that women are equal to men and should have equal rights and opportunities
Secularization The decline in the influence of religion in society
Phoneme A basic unit of sound that distinguishes meaning in a language
Phonology The study of sounds made in speech
Phones Units of sound in a language
Morphemes The smallest units of a language that convey meaning
Morphology The study of mrphemes
Syntax Rules for phrase and sentence construction in a language
Semantics The meaning of words, phrases, and sentences
Lexicon A vocabulary of words used within a specific language
Protolanguage The parent language for many ancient and modern languages
Pragmatics The rules of using language within a particular speech community
Kinesics The study of body motion and gestures used in nonverbal communication
Proxemics The study of how people in different societies perceive and use space
Created by: mstout