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Summer Assignment

Global History

What is the significance of marker events? They change the way people view events of the past.
How can marker events pose problems when determining turning points in human history? A marker event that is true for one part of the world may not be true for all parts of the world.
What was the problem with agriculture's marker event? It was established by different parts of the world at different times independently.
Why is it important for historians to be aware of cultural perspective when studying the past. Different cultures view the world in different ways. Cultures can believe things that are more of an opinion than a fact.
How do push factors, pull factors, and intervening obstacles affect human migration? They affect the amount of people moving from one place to another.
How do push factors affect human migration? They make people want to leave their homeland for negative reasons.
How do pull factors affect human migration? They make people want to live in a new land for positive reasons.
How do intervening obstacles affect human migration? They limit the amount of migration because they make it more difficult.
What is cultural diffusion? The spreading of culture in a new area.
How does cultural diffusion impact the development of civilizations? It brings new languages, religions, technology, and diseases to a new area, which can both positively and negatively affect the development of civilizations.
When did humans begin to evolve? 6 million years ago. (Before 8,000 BCE)
A creature that walks on two legs instead of four.
What was the earliest bipedal? Ardepithecus Ramidus.
Before 8,000 BCE: What were primary sources like? Mainly artifacts and fossils. (No documents)
What were the advantages of homo sapiens? Thumbs. bipedal. (Most important: large and developed brain)
What is history? First written records, begins at 4,000-3,000 BCE)
What is prehistory? Before written records.
What are primary sources? Original evidence from the past.
What is the Paleolithic Age? AKA Old Stone Age, humans had all continents besides Antarctica.
How could the primary source, Lucy, assist researchers in the study of this time period? Lucy helps researchers study the past by showing how apes began evolving into humans. Lucy was a hybrid between humans and apes, that was bipedal, like humans are today. It helped show the development between apes, leading up to homosapiens,
True or False: Hunters and gathers were nomads. True, they had no permanent homes because they needed to follow the game and find new plants.
Hunters and gathers had _____ social statuses. Few.
Division of labor between hunters and gathers was based on ________. Gender, hunters were men and gathers were women.
Forage. To search for, usually food.
What were the tools of hunters and gathers made of? Wood, bone, and stone.
Hunters and gathers used ______ to build huts and help develop agriculture. Tools.
Homo Sapiens. Scientific name for humans.
Hunters and gathers created ________ _________. Cave paintings.
True or False: Hunters and gathers had no religions and leisure time, False.
Neanderthal. People found in Neander Valley, Germany,
How did the invention of fire improve early humans' lives and change their lifestyles? The discovery of fire improved the lives of early humans by creating a larger variety of foods that could be eaten, keeping animals away, hardened weapons, and warmed bodies.
True or False: The marker event of the Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution was an independent invention. True, it occurred at many different times around the world.
True or False: Hunting and gathering slowly replaced agriculture as the main source for food intake. False, agriculture replaced hunting and gathering.
________ _________ brought new plants. Cultural diffusion.
What was the first domesticated animal? Dogs.
Neolithic Revolution. The gradual change from hunting and gathering to farming.
Agriculture. The planting and harvesting of crops.
Horticulture. Developed before agriculture, used only hand tools to farm, first to settle in one place.
Pastoralism. First to domesticate animals, semi nomadic.
Domestication of animals. The taming of animals to assist with agriculture.
Surplus, More than needed.
Polytheism. Belief in more than one god.
Metallurgy. The study of properties of metals.
Textiles. Woven fabric.
Catal Huyuk. First city-like area with a lot of protection and trading.
During the Neolithic Revolution, people _____ ______ for the first time and ______ property. Settled down, owned.
Neolithic Revolution: ________ of labor led to ________ and more efficient work. Divison, specialization.
Neolithic Revolution: _______ ________ formed and gender ________ began. Social classes, inequality.
Neolithic Revolution: Farmers grew ___________ of crops for the non-farmers. Surpluses.
Neolithic Revolution: Established belief in ________, believed in gods for each aspect of life. Polytheism.
The six requirements to be considered a civilization. 1. Complex jobs 2. Distinct social classes 3. Becoming of cities 4. Complex governments 5. Long distance trade 6. Developed form of writing
Civilization. An area that has altered its environment and expanded its functions.
Social hierarchy. The placement of social classes into society.
True or False: Nomads and civilized people got along. False, the civilized people were disgusted by the nomads' lack of control and organization.
Cultural hearths. Areas where civilizations discovered significant ideas that completely changed the ways of life.
Cultural hearths depended on _______. Location.
Mesopotamia. The earliest civilization, located in Southwest Asia.
Mesopotamia: Semitic languages. Early settlers' language in Mesopotamia that inspired Hebrew and Arabic languages.
Mesopotamia: Sumerians. Non-Semitic group that helped Mesopotamia grow.
Mesopotamia: City-states. Small, self-ruling areas with no central government.
Mesopotamia: Sargon the Great. Conquered the Semitic city states with the Sumerians.
Mesopotamia: Akkadian Empire. Founded by Sargon the Great, spread Sumerian culture.
Mesopotamia: Fertile Crescent. Land from Mesopotamia to Egypt.
Mesopotamia was known as the _______ ________ _____ ______. Land between two rivers.
Mesopotamia: __________ overpowered __________. Sumerians, Semites.
Mesopotamia: Majority of jobs involved _________. Agriculture.
Mesopotamia: _________ became significant as population grew. Literacy.
Sargon the Great had Mesopotamia ruled by a ________ instead of _______. King, Priests.
Theocracy. Areas ruled by gods or priests.
Hitties. Group of people that lived in Mesopotamia in 1500's BCE.
Assyrians. Group of people that lived in Mesopotamia in 500's BCE.
New Babylonians. Group of people that settled in Mesopotamia.
Hammurabi's Code. Listed crimes and their punishments for Babylonians.
What do the excerpts from Hammurabi's code tell us about the Mesopotamian society under the Babylonians? Babylonians believed in equal, but unforgiving laws. However, lower social classes mattered less and were treated more poorly.
Mesopotamia: __________ gave power to ______. Cuneiforms, scribes.
Mesopotamia (True or False): City states believed in many gods and worshipped them all equally. False, although city-states believed in multiple gods, they worshipped one above the rest.
Mesopotamia: Cuneiform. First form of writing, consisted of symbols.
Mesopotamia: The Epic of Gilgamesh. Famous story about the meaning of life and death.
Mesopotamia: Ziggurats. Large temples dedicated to a specific god.
Why has the Epic of Gilgamesh stood the test of time and been incorporated into many different religions and cultures? It shows a powerful message of believing in one's religion and has a message that all types of people can relate to.
Nile River. River in Egypt.
Egypt: Cataracts. Areas where the water is not suitable for boats.
Where is Egypt located? Northeastern Africa.
True or False: Egypt is the longest lasting civilization. True.
Egypt is considered a _________ valley. River.
Egypt's weather conditions are _________ and ________. Hot and dry.
True or False: Egypt was heavily involved with other civilizations. False, they were isolated from other civilizations.
The _________ __________ protected Egypt from invasions. Nile River.
True or False: Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had predicted flooding. True.
Most Egyptians were ____________. Farmers.
This invention made work more efficient. The wheel.
Specialization and improved transportation increased _________ in Egypt. Trade.
Hyksos. Group of people in today's Turkey that attacked Egypt with the advantage of their bronze weapons.
Pharaoh. Leader of Egypt, considered a god.
Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Three stages of Egypt's history.
Egypt: Patriarchy. The system where the head of family is a male and passes it down to his son.
Social mobility. Being able to change your social status.
Hatshepsut. Female pharaoh of Egypt, removed from records.
The first pharaoh of Egypt. Menes.
Pharaohs were thought to be reincarnations of ____________. Horus.
Pharaohs had _________, or full control. Ma'at.
Old Kingdom. 3,000-2,500 BCE, most successful years for pharaohs and economy, first construction of tombs in the great pyramids for pharaohs.
Middle Kingdom. Peaceful period, more trade, establishment of middle class, end with the invasion of Hyksos, 2,100-1,650 BCE.
New Kingdom. 1,550-700 BCE, Hysos ruling and eventually defeat, pharaohs expanded control of territory and converted new subjects to their beliefs, kingdom gradually weakened and lost power.
Why did Hatshepsut refer to herself as a "he" and wear a fake beard? What does this reveal about Egyptian society? The typical leaders of Ancient Egypt were male, which shows that females were considered inferior to males in society.
True or False: Egyptians' main focuses were math and science, while Mesopotamia studied art. False, Egyptians excelled in pyramid building and art, while Mesopotamians advanced with math and science.
Pictographs. Pictures that are symbols for animals, people, etc.
True or False: Egyptians were polytheists. True.
Papyrus. Material used to write on, made of plants.
Amon-Re. Egyptian god of the Sun.
Isis. Egyptian god of the Nile River.
Osiris. Egyptian god of the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead. Collection of dead Egyptian rituals.
What do Egyptian rules and guidelines reveal about their society? Egyptians heavily valued religion and treating others with respect. They believed criminals, those who disrespected the gods, and those who brought harm to others should be punished.
Where is Indus Valley located? In today's Pakistan.
Indus Valley: Mohenjo-Daro. Major city, first to be discovered by scientists.
Indus Valley:Aryans. From the Northwest, spoke Indo-European languages, believed to have attacked Indus Valley and conquered it.
Indus Valley had weak ___________. Craftsmen.
Dravidian. Language scientists once thought the people off the Indus Valley spoke.
Monsoon rains. Seasonal wind patterns that contributed to the Indus River.
Harappa. Major city in Indus Valley, trading center.
Where have the ancient seals of the Indus Valley been found? Mesopotamia, China, Southeast Asia, and Afghanistan.
What was the purpose of the seals? To make sure the containers that they were attached to during trading weren't opened, and to identify merchants.
Why hasn't the language of the Indus River Valley people been deciphered? The messages are too short and vague.
Rosetta Stone. A tablet written on in hieroglyphics, informal Egyptian, and Greek.
How did the Rosetta Stone help scientists decipher hieroglyphics? Scientists knew Greek and translated the hieroglyphics.
Systems failure. The downfall of a civilization's political, social, and economic system.
Indus River's downfall occurred ___________. Gradually.
True or False: Ancient China was isolated from other civilizations. True.
Ancient China: Loess. Fertile soil that made farming easier.
True or False: Ancient China had regular flooding. False, Ancient China had irregular flooding.
Ancient China had good _____________. Craftsmen.
Ancient China: Xia. Dynasty that controlled land near the Huang He River.
Shang. Dynasty that conquered early Ancient China.
Ancient China: Tribute. Payment by produce or goods.
Ancient China: What was the main premise of the Mandate of Heaven and why did Zhou impose the belief? The Mandate of Heaven was a the belief that emperors had permission from the heavens to conquer a dynasty, as long as they remained fair to their civilians. Zhou imposed the belief so that those once under the Shang Dynasty would trust him.
Ancient China: Dynastic Cycle. When a dynasty conquers another dynasty when their ruling has weakened.
True or False: Religion did not play a significant role in Ancient China. True.
Ancient China: Shamans. People that had the ability to translate the breakage patterns from the oracle bones to determine an answer.
Ancient China: Pictograph. Pictures used for writing, oracle bones helped decipher it.
Ancient China: Oracle bones. Bones that were inscribed with questions to dead ancestors.
Ancient China: Zhou Dynasty. Overthrew Shang Dynasty, longest lasting dynasty.
Ancient China: Confucianism. A system of lessons involving philosophy and religion.
The Book of Songs. Book of early Chinese poetry.
Divination. Communicating with gods to help predict the future.
How do Ancient China differ from different parts of the world? They heavily valued families, especially ancestors, who they came to for wisdom. They did consider religion to be extremely significant, and also valued literacy.
Where were the differences and similarities between divination methods in Ancient China and Mesopotamia? Similar: Predicted the future by interpreting a sign they believed came from a higher power. Differences: In Ancient China, they believed the messages came from their ancestors, and in Mesopotamia the gods were held responsible. Ways of getting messages.
True or False: The early civilizations of the Americans were isolated from other civilizations. True.
Civilizations in Americas: Olmec was based on ________________. Agriculture.
True or False: The early civilizations of Americas were very dry. False, they received a lot of rainfall.
_____________ was significant in the civilizations of Americas. Religion.
What were the early civilizations of Americans' reasons for downfall? They are unknown.
Eastern Hemisphere. Half of Earth, east of Prime Meridian.
Western Hemisphere. Other half of Earth, west of Prime Meridian.
Olmec. A complex society that Mesopotamia became.
Chavin. Civilization that developed in Peru, near the Andes.
How has modern science and technology changed the historic understanding and common theories held on the advent of agriculture in the Andes Mountains of America? It showed that agriculture was developed earlier than thought in the western hemisphere by discovering squash seeds in the Nanchoc Valley. Through radiocarbon dating and analyzing plant remains, they discovered the seeds were older than expected.
Early Civilizations in the Middle East: Late Bronze Age. 1,700-1,100 BCE. had an early version of cosmopolitan.
True or False: Mycenaeans were peaceful and disliked combat. False, they were aggressive and war-like.
True or False: Once once civilization in the Middle East fell, the others did too in a domino effect. True.
Cosmopolitan. The changing of lifestyles that occur when groups are frequently together.
Mycenaean. Conquered the Minoans and Island of Crete.
Minoans. Original group to form a civilization on the Island of Crete.
Created by: emarciante9