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APHG: UNIT 7 VOCAB

All the Unit 7 Vocab (Cities and Urban Land) regardless of the ch it falls into

TermDefinition
Bid-rent theory geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Blockbusting Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and other Stirrup fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting out-migration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties
CBD (central business district) In a city, the point with the greatest access to offices, Banks, stores, and other activities. It is the most distinguishing feature and functions as a central Marketplace, a major transportation note, and an administrative Center, and it offers high-level services and contains heavy pedestrian traffic
Census tract MOVE CARD
Centrality The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities, a city's reach into the surrounding region
Central place theory Theory proposed by Walter christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another. This explains the size and distribution of settlements through reference to competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed rural populations
Christaller, Walter German geographer credited with developing central place theory
City Conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
City state A system of small, City Center states where political organization revolved around the city itself. People not engage with agriculture lived in the city while Farmers resided in the surrounding hinterlands
Colonial city Cities established by colonizing Empires as administrative Sinners, often they were established on already existing native cities, completely over taking their infrastructures
Commercialization The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to Residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
Commuter zone the outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work.
Concentric zone model A visual representation of a city that categorizes parts of the city into CBD Fringe or frame, zone of transition, zone of independent workingmen's homes, residential Zone, and commuters Zone
Counter urbanization Net migration from Urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Decentralization the tendency of people or businesses and industry to locate outside the central city; the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action
Deindustrialization Accumulative and sustained decline of manufacturing activities in a regional or national economy, involving the loss of both firms and jobs
Early cities cities of the ancient world
Economic base A community's collection of basic Industries
Edge city Cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized Suburban environment
Employment structure Number of people employed with both basic and nonbasic jobs
Entrepot a trading center, or simply a trading warehouse where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying for import duties, often at a profit
Ethnic neighborhood In cities, areas that have concentrated populations of a particular ethnic group, such as Chinatown
Exurbanite Person who has left the inner city and move to outline suburbs or rural areas
Favela slum communities
Female headed household a household dominated by a woman
Festival landscape a landscape of cultural festivities
Forward Capital Capitals that are intended to help move a population towards less populous areas
Gateway city Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry in distribution centers for large Geographic areas
Gender The social norms and behaviors that are expected of males or females
Gentrification The trend of middle and upper income Americans moving into City centres and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods
Ghetto Originally, an Italian term for areas of cities were Jews were forced to live. More broadly, poor Urban neighborhoods where minorities are concentrated
Globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become Global in scale and impact. The process of this transcend State boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Great Migration An early 20th century mass movement of African Americans from the Deep South to the industrial North, particularly Chicago
High tech corridors areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development, and sale of high-technology products
Hinterland The market area surrounding an urban center which that urban center serves
Hydraulic civilization any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks
Indigenous city a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
In-filling building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development
Informal sector Employment that is labor intensive, absorbs the remainder of the work force, and is open to nearly everyone but offers very low standard of living
Infrastructure In social theory, such as in structuralism, the hidden ideas and theories that helped create the visible world around us
Inner city decay Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their population as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, this area loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty
Invasion and succession process by which new immigrants to a city move to dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups
Islamic City Cities in Muslim countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs. These cities contain mosques at the center and walls guarding their perimeter. Open air markets, Courtyard surrounded by high walls, and Dead End streets, which limit foot traffic in residential neighborhoods, also characterized these cities
Latin American City Cities in this area that owe much of their structure to colonialism, the rapid rise of industrialization, and continual rapid increase in population. Similar to other colonial cities, they also demonstrate distinctive sectors of industrial or residential development radiating out from the central business district, where most industrial and financial activities occur
Lateral commuting traveling from one suburb to another and going from home to work
Medieval cities Cities that develop in Europe during the medieval period and that contains such unique features as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, and Renee church that prominently marks the city center, and high wall surrounding the city center that provide defense against attack
Mega cities Cities, mostly characteristics of the developing world, where High population growth and migration have caused them to explode and population since World War II. All these cities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty
Megalopolis/conurbanization Several metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large sprawling Urban complex
Metropolitan area Within the United States, an urban area consisting of one or more whole County units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole
Modern Architecture Point of view, we're in cities and buildings are thought to act like well-oiled machines, with little energy spent on frivolous details or are Nate designs. Efficient, geometrical structure is made of concrete and glass dominated Urban forms for half-a-century while this view prevailed.
Multiple nuclei model Type of urban form where in cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place
Multiplier effect A job in a particular industry that has a multiplier of 2.0, meaning that this one job actually results in two jobs in the economy. The original industrial job as well as an additional non base job
New Urbanism A movement in urban planning to promote mixed-use commercial and residential development and pedestrian-friendly, community-oriented cities. This is a reaction to the sprawling, automobiles centered cities of the mid-twentieth century
Neighborhood the area or region around or near some place or thing
Office park A cluster of office buildings, usually located along an interstate, often forming the nucleus of an edge city
Peak value intersection CORRECTED A single intersection with the greatest access, usually located at the intersection of two main streets
Planned communities/ cities Cities laid out along more symbolic lines, often rich with symbolic elements, such as cosmological principles
Postindustrial city A stage of economic development in which service activities become relatively more important than Goods production. Professional and Technical employment supersedes employment in agriculture and Manufacturing. And level of living is defined by the quality of services and amenities rather than by the quantity of goods available
Postmodern urban landscape A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. This uses older, historical Styles and a sense of light hardness and eclecticism. Buildings combined Pleasant looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to Great spaces that are more people friendly than their modernist predecessors
Primate city A country's leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country
Racial steering the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
Rank-size-rule Rule that states the population of Any Given Town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the country's hierarchy when the distribution of cities according to their size follows a certain pattern
Redlining A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
Restrictive covenants a statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of land in some way
Sector model A model or Urban land use that places the central business district in the Middle with the wedge-shaped sectors radiating outward from the center along Transportation corridors
Segregation The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homogeneous Suburban neighborhoods. This process isolates those individuals who cannot afford to consider relocating to Suburban neighborhoods and must remain in certain pockets of the Central City
Nucleated Settlement MOVE CARD
Dispersed Settlement MOVE CARD
Elongated Settlement MOVE CARD
Site/situation MOVE CARDS
Slum a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions
Social structure social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between different relationships
Specialization where individuals become experts in producing certain goods or services that are then exchanged
Squatter settlement Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupancy
Street pattern (grid, dendritic; access, control) the way in which streets are designed; grid: streets are arranged in a grid-like fashion; dendritic: characterized by fewer streets organized based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry; access: provides access to a subdivision, housing project, or highway; control: allows highways or housing projects to be supervised
Suburb Residential communities, located outside of City centers, that are usually relatively homogeneous in terms of population
Suburbanization Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century
Symbolic landscape smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category. iconic landscapes, i.e. the state capitol symbolizes WI. every landscape can symbolize something, but these are focal points for people's attention
Tenement a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
Threshold/Range Threshold the minimum number of people needed to support the service Range the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Town A nucleated settlement that contains the central business district but that is small and less functionally complex than a city
Underclass The group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed Society because of a variety of Social and economic characteristics
Under employment a situation in which people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
Urban growth rate the rate of growth of an urban population
Urban function Services that are provided in a certain urban area
Urban hierarchy A ranking of settlements, Hamlet, village, town, City, Metropolis, according to their size and economic functions
Urban hydrology Study of water in Urban areas and how to treat it. (Pollution)
Urban morphology the form and structure of cities, including street patterns and the size and shape of buildings
Urbanization A term with several connotations. The proportion of a country's population living in urban places is its level of this. The process of this involves the movement of people to, and the clustering of people in, towns and cities which is a major force in every Geographic realm today, another kind of this occurs when an expanding City absorbs the rural Countryside and transforms it into suburbs. In the case of cities in the developing world this also generates peripheral shantytowns
Urban population COREECTED A population composed of individuals who are not themselves engaged in agriculture yet have to be housed and fed, which poses a challenge to the urban economy
World city Centers of economic, cultural, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together controlled the Global Systems of finance and commerce
Zone in transition an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
Zoning laws CORRECTED Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of buildings and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the United States, areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use
Agglomeration MOVE CARD