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APHG: UNIT 5 VOCAB

All the Unit 5 Vocab (Agriculture/Rural) regardless of the chapter it falls into

TermDefinition
Agrarian Of or relating to cultivated land or the cultivation of land
Agribusiness General term for the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agricultural industry
Agricultural industrialization Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is also known as this which is characterized by a low fallow ratio and higher use of inputs such as capital and labor per unit land area. This is in contrast to traditional agriculture in which the inputs per unit land are lower
Agricultural landscape Land in which humans Farm on and what humans choose to put in the fields
Agricultural location model The model constructed by Von tune in which shows that the center of a city is Dairy and Market gardening, Forrest, grains and field crops, and the outer ring is ranching
Agricultural origins through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for their own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting was likely originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W India, N China, and Ethiopia
Agriculture The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
Animal husbandry An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats
Aquaculture The cultivation or farming in controlled conditions of aquatic species, such as fish. In contrast to commercial fishing, which involves catching wild fish
Biorevolution the technological advancement in biological science, including healthcare & food production
Biotechnology A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
Collective farm regards a system of agricultural organization where as farms laborers are not compensated via wages. rather, the workers receive a share of the farm's net productivity - typical in communist and socialists countries like Russia and China
Commercial agricultural Economy Term used to describe large-scale farming and ranching operations that employs a slam basis, large mechanized equipment, Factory type labor force is, in the latest technology
Intensive agriculture Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
Extensive agriculture An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
Commodity chain Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchange on the world market
Crop rotation a systematic approach to deciding which crop to plant where in your vegetable garden from one year to the next. The goals of crop rotation are to help manage organic soil fertility and also to help avoid or reduce problems with soil-borne diseases and some soil-dwelling insects, such as corn rootworms.
Cultivation regions Regions where there is agricultural activity -Areas with agricultural activity generally are not a place where a big city would be located-affects locations of different areas.
Dairying An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter
Debt-for-nature swap An agreement between a developing nation and dead and one or more of its creditors. Creditors agreed to forgive debts in return for Environmental Protection
Diffusion The spatial spreading or dissemination of a cultural element or some other phenomena
Double cropping A second crop is planted after the first has been harvested
Pesticides Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals
soil erosion The wearing away of the land surface by wind and moving water
desertification The encroachment of desert conditions on moisture zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and soils are threatened by desiccation through overuse, in part by humans and their domestic animals, and, possibly, in part because of inexorable shifts in the earth's environmental zones
Extensive subsistence agriculture (pesticides shifting cultivation(slash and burn, milpa, swidden) Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple of years then left fallow for a relatively long time.
shifting cultivation Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared for cyan
slash-and-burn see shifting cultivation; cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning
milpa The cultivation of crops and tropical forest clearings in which Forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning
swidden Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash and burn method
nomadic herding/ pastoralism A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
Extractive industry Industries involved in the activities of prospecting and exploring for a non-renewable resource, getting them, further exploring them, developing them, or extracting them from the Earth
Farm crisis Term used to describe times of agricultural recession, low crop prices and low farm incomes that can lead to farm bankruptcy
Farming the activity or business of growing crops and raising livestock.
Fertile Crescent Crescent shaped zone of productive land extending from near the Southeastern Mediterranean Coast through Lebanon and Syria to the alluvial lowlands of Mesopotamia in Iraq. Once more fertile than today, this is one of the world's great source areas of agricultural and other Innovations
Feedlot Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and Hardy grains that prepare them for Slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing often referred to as factory farms
First agricultural revolution Dating back 10,000 years this achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Fishing The activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe and water are past their lives in water
Food chain The process of food getting harvested then sent to the market area, then to a producer which makes it into a product then is sold to a wholesaler who sells it to a grocery store, who sells it to people
Forestry The art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations and related natural resources
Globalized agriculture Diffusion of Agriculture across the globe
Genetically Modified Organisms Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
Green revolution The recently successful development of higher yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals and certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs
Growing season The part of the Year doing which rainfall and temperature allow plants to grow
Hunting and gathering When a group is able to support Itself by fishing or hunting and Gathering fruits and vegetables
Intensive subsistence agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which Farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Interillage The clearing of Rose in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, and other manual equipment
Livestock ranching An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock / VAST Geographic spaces typically located in semi arid climates like the American West
Market gardening The growing of vegetables are flowers 4 markets
Mediterranean agriculture An agricultural system practiced in the mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse speciality crops such as grapes, avocados, olives and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations
Mineral fuels Hydrocarbons, primarily Cole, fuel oil, or natural gas formed from the remains of dead plants and animals
Mining the process or industry of obtaining coal or other minerals from a mine.
Planned agricultural economy An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution
Plant domestication To adapt a plant to be used by humans
Plantation agriculture When cash crops are grown on large Estates
Renewable resource Can be replaced without a long wait time
Nonrenewable resource A resource that must be depleted to be used
Rural settlement Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities
dispersed settlement Move card
nucleated settlement Move card
Sauer, Carl O. MOVE CARD
Second agricultural revolution Dovetailing with the benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, this witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Specialization We're individuals become experts in producing certain goods or services that are then exchanged
Staple grains Wheat, barley, Millet and other grain products
Suitcase farm When someone owns and operates a farm but lives somewhere else
Survey patterns patterns used to survey the land on Earth
long lots Houses erected on a narrow Lots perpendicular to a long river, so that each original settler had equal river access
metes and bounds A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of this surveying, the u.s. land office survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular Survey System
township-and-range A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
sustainable yield Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of the capital itself, the Surplus required to maintain nature services at the same time, or increasing level overtime
Third agricultural revolution: Currently in progress, this has its principal orientation in the development of genetically modified organisms
Mechanization In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines
chemical farming Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
Food Manufacturing subsector transform livestock and agricultural products into products for intermediate or final consumption
“Tragedy of commons” The observation that in the absence of collective control over the use of a resource available to all, it is to the advantage of all users to maximize their separate shares even though their Collective pressures May diminish total yield or destroy the resource all together
Transhumance A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralist and their livestock between Highland and lowland pastures
Salinization Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation period in arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile
Topsoil loss Loss of the top fertile layer of soil is depleted through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains
Horizontal integration A form of corporate organization in which several branches of a company or several commonly owned companies work together to sell their products in different markets
Vertical Integration A form of corporate organization in which one firm controls multiple aspects or phases of a commodity chain
Truck farm Intensive production of fruits and vegetables from Market rather than for processing or canning also known as Horticultural farming and Market gardening
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich was a German economist of great originality who contributed highly significant concepts and techniques to economic theory.
horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Food security all caps added Refers to the situation where in every person is access to safe and nutritious food of sufficient quantity for an active and healthy lifestyle
Milk shed added The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Adaptive strategies group's system of economic production. In non-industrial societies, it is usually based on food production.