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APHG: UNIT 4 VOCAB

All the Unit 4 Vocab (POLITICAL) regardless of the chapter it falls into

TermDefinition
Antarctic It is the largest land mass in the world not part of a sovereign state. Territorial claims are suspended on this continent.
Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different Geographic areas
Balkanization The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
definitional boundary focus on the legal language of the treaty for the boundary. Ex. Native American treaties
locational/positional boundary dispute is when the definition is not in dispute but the interpretation is. definition of the boundary isn't disputed but interpretation of where boundary is, is disputed ~ Both sides interpret in their own way ~ Boundary not strictly defined enough ~ Dispute on exactly where and how wide, long, etc. it should be ~ Ex. Native Americans Ex. Saudi Arabia and Yemen/Oman/UAE
operational/functional boundary dispute is a dispute of how a boarder should function. dispute on how boundary should function or operate ~ Disagree on how to use a piece of shared land ~ Disagree on border control ~ Ex. Mexico and United States Ex. Iraq and Iran with the Persian Gulf
allocation/resource boundary dispute occurs over a resource on a boundary between two countries. dispute over allocation of natural resources ~ Who gets access to resources along the boundary? ~ Especially difficult with sea boundaries ~ High over oil and water ~ Ex. Iraq and Kuwait (oil) 1991
resource dispute Disagreement over the control or use of shared resources.
antecedent boundary A boundary created before an area is known or populated often drawn with no recognition of the populations living there
subsequent boundary Boundaries created after recognized settlement. They are meant to separate existing cultural groups and may signify an attempt to align the boundaries that exist between nations
superimposed boundary Boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern
relic boundary Old political boundaries that no longer exist as International borders but that have left and enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography
boundary ÷÷÷÷÷#/ A line that distinguishes the area within the region from the area outside the region
boundary delimitation In political geography the translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation
boundary demarcation In political geography the actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers
natural/physical boundary Political boundary defined and limited by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape such as a river or the crest Ridges of a mountain range
consequent (ethnographic) boundary A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
geometric boundary Political boundary defined and limited as a straight line or an arc
Buffer state A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of these states may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
Capital Political Center and necessary component of every state. It may or may not be in the corps, and there may be more than one in a country
Centrifugal force Forces that tend to divide a country
Centripetal force Forces that 10 to unite or bind a country together
City-state A system of small, City Center states where political organization revolved around the city itself. People not engaged with agriculture lived in the city, while Farmers resided in the surrounding hinterlands
Colonialism The expansion and perpetuation of an Empire
Colony Parts of an Empire that are subordinate and have very little right to self-determination
Confederation A system in which sovereign states agree to abridge some of their independent powers in order to work together as a group, but each state retains a great deal of sovereignty
Conference of Berlin A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies
Core area In geography, a term with several connotations. This refers to the center, heart, or Focus. This area of a nation-state is constituted by the national Heartland or the largest population cluster, the most productive region, the area with the greatest centrality and accessibility, probably containing the capital city as well
Core/periphery Model A model of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their independence on a dominating developed core region
Decolonization A trend in which colonies became independent from the states that colonize them after the United States declared its independence
Democratization The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by the popularly elected officials
Devolution The delegation of legal Authority from a central government to lower levels of political organization, such as a state or country
Discretionary income Within a country's population, the amount of money available to be used to satisfy various wants
Domino theory The idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to the collapse of political stability in neighbouring countries, starting a chain-reaction of collapse
EEZ (Exclusive economic zone) As established in the United Nations convention on the law of the sea, a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
European Union International Organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Electoral regions different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions
Enclave Any small and relatively homogeneous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
Exclave A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
Ethnic conflict MOVE CARD
European Union an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members note: England voted in 2016 to exit the European Union=Brexit
Embargo An external source that has the ability to choke off supplies of a critical resource
Federal state An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
Forward capital Capitals that are intended to help move a population towards less populous areas
Frontier An area at the edge of any type of effective political control or at the edge of settlement with edges that shift frequently with settlement advances or increasing military control
Geopolitics The study of how geographical space--including the types of interrelationships between states, the different functions of states, and the different patterns of States-- affects global politics
Gerrymandering Manipulation that concentrates the support of one party or one group of people in one district and dilutes their support throughout a number of other districts
Global commons those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Rimland Theory Nicholas spykman theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for World Conquest
Immigrant states States with a lot of immigrants
International organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either autonomy or self-determination
Irredentism The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with people of the state but that lies within a neighboring state
Landlocked Describing a state that lacks a Sea Coast
Law of the sea (UNCLOS ) Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Mackinder, Halford J. One of the founding fathers of Geopolitics
Manifest destiny a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Median-line principle an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.
Microstates A state or territory that is small in both population and area
Nation Tightly-knit group of individuals sharing a Common Language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
National iconography the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images.
Nation-state A state that contains a single nation that is not disputed by anyone inside or outside
nationalism The ideology that maintains that members of a Nation should be allowed to form their own sovereign state
North-South Divide The economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe and North America, Japan, and Australia and the generally poor countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Nodes An Origin, designation, or intersection place in a communication or Transportation Network
Raison d’etre phrase borrowed from French where it means simply "reason for being"; in English use it also comes to suggest a degree of rationalization, as "The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone".
Reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district in compus approximately the same number of people
Regionalism In political geography, group which is frequently ethnic group, identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
Reunification the act of coming together again ex: East and West Germany after the Cold War North and South Korea (possibly) Norther and Southern states during the Civil War
Separatism Desired Regional autonomy expressed by a culturally distinctive group within a larger, politically dominant culture
Satellite state A state with less actual sovereignty, such as the freedom to exercise its own foreign policy or even to make internal changes
Self-determination And idea where by members of a Nation are allowed to form their own sovereign state
Shatter belt Regions that are politically fragmented and are often areas of competition between two ideological or two religious realms
Sovereignty An indicator that a particular government has complete control and jurisdiction over a defined area
State A country or the most important spatial scale unit in political geography
Stateless ethnic groups Groups with no state of inhabitance
Stateless nation A nation that has no state to call its own
Suffrage The ability to vote
Supranationalism Term applied to association's created by three or more States for their Mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives
Compact state A state whose territory is nearly circular
Fragmented state A state that is not a continguous whole but rather separated parts
Elongated state A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
Prorupt state A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
Perforated state A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
Territoriality An individual or group attempt to identify and establish control over a defined territory considered partially or wholly and exclusive domain; the behavior associated with the defense of the home territory
Theocracy A state whose government is either believe to be divinely-guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders
Unitary state A state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
United Nations A global supranational organization established at the end of World War II to Foster International Security and cooperation
Women’s enfranchisement the right of voting when given to women
East-West divide ADDED Geographic separation between the largely Democratic and free market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
Organic Theory ADDED The View that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of Youth, maturity, and old age
North American Free Trade Agreement ADDED Agreement signed on January 1st 1994 that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada9
Schengen agreement ADDED In 1995, several European countries lifted all border controls between them, allowing for unimpeded Access across International boundaries. It now includes most western and central European countries as well as many Eastern European countries
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States