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All the Unit 4 Vocab (POLITICAL) regardless of the chapter it falls into

Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different Geographic areas
Balkanization The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
definitional boundary focus on the legal language of the treaty for the boundary. Ex. Native American treaties
locational/positional boundary dispute boundary dispute over the physical location ~ Boundary not strictly defined enough ~ Dispute on exactly where and how wide, long, etc. it should be ~ Ex. Post-WWI where the boundary between Poland and Germany was disputed ~ Ex. Saudi Arabia and Yemen
operational/functional boundary dispute is a dispute of how a boarder should function. dispute on how boundary should function or operate ~ Disagree on how to use a piece of shared land ~ Disagree on border control ~ Ex. Mexico and United States Ex. Iraq and Iran with the Persian Gulf
Allocational boundary dispute over allocation of natural resources ~ Who gets access to resources along the boundary? ~ Especially difficult with sea boundaries ~ High over oil and water ~ Ex. Iraq and Kuwait (oil) 1991
resource dispute Disagreement over the control or use of shared resources.
antecedent boundary A boundary created before an area is known or populated often drawn with no recognition of the populations living there
subsequent boundary Boundaries created after recognized settlement. They are meant to separate existing cultural groups and may signify an attempt to align the boundaries that exist between nations
superimposed boundary Boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern
relic boundary Old political boundaries that no longer exist as International borders but that have left and enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography
boundary definition A line that distinguishes the area within the region from the area outside the region
boundary delimitation In political geography the translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation
boundary demarcation In political geography the actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers
natural/physical boundary Political boundary defined and limited by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape such as a river or the crest Ridges of a mountain range
consequent (ethnographic) boundary A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
geometric boundary straight lines drawn by people
Buffer state A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of these states may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
Capital Political Center and necessary component of every state. It may or may not be in the corps, and there may be more than one in a country
Centrifugal force Forces that tend to divide a country
Centripetal force Forces that 10 to unite or bind a country together
City-state A system of small, City Center states where political organization revolved around the city itself. People not engaged with agriculture lived in the city, while Farmers resided in the surrounding hinterlands
Colonialism The expansion and perpetuation of an Empire
Colony Parts of an Empire that are subordinate and have very little right to self-determination
Confederation A system in which sovereign states agree to abridge some of their independent powers in order to work together as a group, but each state retains a great deal of sovereignty
Conference of Berlin A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies
Core area Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, salaries, and technologies (ex. U.S, Canada, Japan)
Core/periphery Model A model of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their independence on a dominating developed core region
Decolonization A trend in which colonies became independent from the states that colonize them after the United States declared its independence
Democratization The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by the popularly elected officials
Devolution the transfer of power from one central gov't to many local/regional gov'ts (Ex: Fall of Soviet Union)
Discretionary income Within a country's population, the amount of money available to be used to satisfy various wants
Domino theory The idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to the collapse of political stability in neighbouring countries, starting a chain-reaction of collapse
EEZ (Exclusive economic zone) As established in the United Nations convention on the law of the sea, a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
European Union International Organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Electoral regions different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions
Enclave a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country (ex. Lesotho surrounded by South Africa, Vatican City by Italy)
Exclave country that is completely separated from the main body of that country (ex. Alaska)
Ethnic conflict a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources
European Union an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members note: England voted in 2016 to exit the European Union=Brexit
Embargo An external source that has the ability to choke off supplies of a critical resource
Federal state power is shared between central gov't and state or local gov't (ex. US)
Forward capital Capitals that are intended to help move a population towards less populous areas (ex. Islamabad in Pakistan and Brasilia in Brazil )
Frontier An area at the edge of any type of effective political control or at the edge of settlement with edges that shift frequently with settlement advances or increasing military control
Geopolitics The study of how geographical space--including the types of interrelationships between states, the different functions of states, and the different patterns of States-- affects global politics
Gerrymandering changing voting boundaries based on race, voting patterns, class, etc (ex. if there's a big population of black voters, they would win seats as they outvote white voters)
Global commons those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world (ex. Russia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe)
Rimland Theory Whoever controlled the seas would rule the world (coastal regions across Europe, Asia)
Immigrant states States with a lot of immigrants
International organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either autonomy or self-determination
Irredentism The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with people of the state but that lies within a neighboring state
Landlocked a country that is completely surrounded by the territory of more than one other country and has no direct access to the sea (ex. Bolivia)
Law of the sea (UNCLOS ) Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Mackinder, Halford J. One of the founding fathers of Geopolitics
Manifest destiny a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Median-line principle an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.
Microstates A state or territory that is small in both population and area
Nation Tightly-knit group of individuals sharing a Common Language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
National iconography the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images.
Nation-state A state that contains a single nation that is not disputed by anyone inside or outside (ex. Iceland, Japan)
nationalism The ideology that maintains that members of a Nation should be allowed to form their own sovereign state
Raison d’etre phrase borrowed from French where it means simply "reason for being"; in English use it also comes to suggest a degree of rationalization, as "The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone".
Reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district in compus approximately the same number of people
Regionalism In political geography, group which is frequently ethnic group, identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
Reunification the act of coming together again ex: East and West Germany after the Cold War North and South Korea (possibly) Norther and Southern states during the Civil War
Separatism Desired Regional autonomy expressed by a culturally distinctive group within a larger, politically dominant culture
Shatter belt Regions that are politically fragmented and are often areas of competition between two ideological or two religious realms
Sovereignty An indicator that a particular government has complete control and jurisdiction over a defined area
State A country or the most important spatial scale unit in political geography
Stateless ethnic groups Groups with no state of inhabitance
Stateless nation A nation that has no state to call its own
Suffrage The ability to vote
Supranationalism Term applied to association's created by three or more States for their Mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives
Compact state everywhere is about the same distance from the center (Poland, Romania)
Fragmented state A state that is not a continguous whole but rather separated parts (ex. Indonesia, Phillippines)
Elongated state stretched out, difficult to travel (Chile, Norway)
Prorupt state compact + extension (Thailand, India)
Perforated state Perforated = has another state completely within its boundaries (South Africa - Lesotho, Italy - Vatican City)
Territoriality An individual or group attempt to identify and establish control over a defined territory considered partially or wholly and exclusive domain; the behavior associated with the defense of the home territory
Theocracy A state whose government is either believe to be divinely-guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders
Unitary state power held primarily by central gov't without much power given to local gov't (ex: France)
United Nations A global supranational organization established at the end of World War II to Foster International Security and cooperation
Women’s enfranchisement the right of voting when given to women
Organic Theory The View that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of Youth, maturity, and old age
Nation-States Country made up of one nationality (examples: Iceland, Japan)
Multi-national States Countries made up of many nationalities (examples: US, Canada)
Stateless Nations Nationalities without a recognized home country (examples: Kurds, Palestinians)
Multi-state Nations Nationalities that spread among many states (example: Koreans live in North & South Korea plus many in China and the US)
Cultural boundary based on human traits or behaviors, without an official boundary
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Created by: Mrs.LydiaKirk
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