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APHG: UNIT 3.2 VOCAB

This is Unit 3 with Religion, Ethnicity, Gender

TermDefinition
Universalizing Religions Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe
Buddhism Founded in the sixth Century BCE and characterized by the belief that Enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge. Elimination of greed, craving, and desire. Complete honesty. And never hurting another person or animal. This splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict social hierarchy maintained by Hinduism
Siddartha The Buddha. A noble born in the Himalayas approximately 2,500 years ago who rejected his life of privilege and saw a path to Enlightenment. His teachings form the basis for Buddhism
Eightfold Path In Buddhism the proper way to eliminate desire and achieve enlightenment
4 Noble Truths In Buddhism, principles that the Buddha taught concerning the nature of existence
Mahayana Buddhism One of the two largest branches of Buddhism, practice primarily in East and Southeast Asia. Generally, it has more mystical and spiritual elements than theravada Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism The oldest of the two major branches of Buddhism. Practice mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, and Cambodia, it's beliefs or relatively conservative, holding close to the original teachings of the Buddha
Christianity The world's largest religion, grounded in judaic beliefs and based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe is the son of God
Roman Catholic Church One of the three major branches of Christianity, this together with Eastern Orthodox Church, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by emperor Diocletian into for governmental regions: to Western regions centered in Rome, and to Eastern regions centered in Constantinople period in 1054 see Christianity was divided along the same line when the Eastern Orthodox Church, centered in Constantinople, and the Roman Catholic Church, centered in Rome, split
Great Schism The Break-Up, in 1054, of the major sect of Christianity into the Catholic church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
Coptic Christians An early sect of Christianity primarily practiced in Egypt and Ethiopia
Jesus A Jewish Prophet, whose teachings formed the basis for Christianity and whom Christians believe was the Messiah
Church house of worship for Christians
Bible The holy book of Christianity, the Bible is broken up into the Old Testament, which is based on the lives of the Israelites and follows the lives of Moses, Abraham, David, and other leaders prophesying about the coming of the Savior, and the New Testament, which describes the life of Jesus Christ and the foundations of the new faith.
Protestant Reformation An important religious movement, which began in Europe in the sixteenth century and was marked by a rejection of the power and rituals of the Catholic Church. It led to the rise of protestant Christian sect
Islam A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was all his Prophet. This is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad. This religion has two major sects. It was founded in the 7th Century by the prophet Muhammad and is now the second largest religion in the world. Practitioners are known as Muslims
Sharia Traditional Muslim law as set forth in the Quran and the example set by Muhammad in his lifetime
Five Pillars of Islam Basic acts that Muslims are supposed to carry out, including a confession of Faith, prayer, charity, observance of Ramadan, and participation in a pilgrimage to Mecca
Muhammad The 7th Century Prophet that Muslims believe is a messenger of God. The founder of the religion of Islam
Hajj The annual pilgrimage to Mecca that all capable Muslims are expected to undertake at least once in their lifetime
Sunni Adherence to the largest branch of Islam, called the Orthodox or traditionalist. They believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites and accepting the traditions of Muhammad as authoritative
Shia Adherence of one of the two main divisions of Islam. Also known as Shiites, dang represent the Persian, Iranian, variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the imams, descendants of Ali
Mosque A house of worship in Islam and distinguished by a tower known as a minaret
Quran The Islamic holy book.
Ethnic Religions Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not sync new Converse
Judaism The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and it said herrents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live. Religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham Who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one God
Kosher Prepared according to Jewish laws and traditions and most commonly used to refer to food
Synagogue A Jewish house of worship
Diaspora A group that identifies with a particular Homeland or territory but whose members are now disbursed
Zorostrainism The belief that Zarathustra is the father of the religion.
Baha'i A universalizing religion founded on the 19th century and practiced in nearly every country today
Secularism A rejection of or indifference to religion and religious practice
Shamanism A set of beliefs and practices in some tribal religions based on belief in a hidden world of God's, ancestral spirits, and demons responsive only to a shaman or interceding priest
Shintoism The polytheistic, ethnic religion of Japan that includes reverence of deities of natural forces and veneration of the Emperor as descendant of the sun goddess
Sikhism Monotheistic religion founded in South Asia in the late 15th century by Guru nanak as a reaction to perceived problems with the teachings of Islam and Hinduism
Taoism An ancient Chinese philosophy or religion focused on individual morality, self-restraint, and humility
African Traditional Religion Various, mostly animistic religions practiced in Africa
Animism The believe that deities or Souls inhabit everyday objects
Confucianism A Chinese folk religion or philosophy that began about 2,500 years ago and that emphasizes proper social relationships and individual morality
Geomancy is a method of prediction that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand.
Vedas The holy books of the Hindus
Caste In Hindu areas, a complex division of society based on hereditary classes that are distinguished by their degree of ritual purity
Untouchables Within Hindu Society, a group whose jobs are considered to be so spiritually and physically impure that they are below all other people in social status and historically have been widely discriminated against
Monotheism The worship of only one God
Polythesim The worship of more than one God
Cargo Cult Pilgrimage a big religious movement by a large amount of people to Melanesia, it's important because Cargo Cults believe western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits
Exclave a part of a country that is separated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
Enclave an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Interfaith Boundaries The boundaries between the world's major faiths.
Jainism religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life.
Landscapes of the Dead The certain areas where people have commonly been buried.
Mormonism A term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement
Proselytize Religion eferred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion
Reincarnation the process of the soul lives on after death and returns to life in a new body
Religion a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of CULTURALLY perceived ultimate priorities
Religious Conflict conflicts between religions
Religious Toponym refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions.
Sacred Space Location with special significance to a religious group, and often attracting pilgrimages or worship rituals. These are often natural features or religious structures directly connected with a DD or associated with significant events in the history of a particular religion
Theocracy a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided or under the control of a group of religious leaders
Acculturation Move card
Adaptive Strategy Describes a society's system of economic production; helps explain some of the differences between societies that are influenced by economy.
Behavioral Assimilation the situation in which a migrant or new ethnic group maintains a strong self-identity and much of the original culture but has adopted enough of the cultural traits of a host society to be a functioning member of it
Cultural assimilation A situation in which a migrant or new ethnic group maintains a strong self-identity and much of the original culture that has adopted enough for the cultural traits of a host Society to be a functioning member of it
Assimilation Move card
Barrioization Define by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood referring to the Spanish word for neighborhood
Cajuns an ethnic group possessing unique linguistic, religious, and other cultural traits, located in Louisiana and surrounding areas with historical roots in Canada
Chain Migration MOVE CARD
Cultural adaptation The positive reaction where by the foreigner readily accepts the new culture as part of his life and practice; an example of language would be adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
Cultural shatterbelt a politically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact and conflict. Cultural clashes. for example, Indonesia with a background of multicultural, ethnicity and religions.
Emergent ethnicity the process in which a new ethnic group or identity appears Example: Palestinians
Ethnic Cleansing the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
Ethnic conflict type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country
Ethnic enclave a small area occupied by a distinctive minority culture
Ethnic group people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
Ethnic homeland the concept of the place (cultural geography) to which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association with
Ethnic landscape landscape affected and varied by the ethnic group living there
Ethnic neighborhood an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
Ethnicity a group's self-identification based on cultural, historical, physical, or other characteristics. NOT the same as culture. _______ INCLUDES culture and many other ideas
Ethnocentrism an attitude of ethnic or cultural superiority; everything is CENTERED on ME
Ethnoburb a suburb with a concentration of a particular ethnic group Example: Dearborn, MI (large Arab community)
Ghetto a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Index of dissimilarity a measure of segregation that indicates how isolated two groups are from each other in a particular city or area Example: Census Tracts; US Census Bureau
Hanification the Chinese government practice of moving Han Chinese citizens into minority ethnic areas to dilute the importance of the minority culture.
Plural society A society in which several ethnic groupings coexist.
Race Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor.
Segregation Separating types of human based on anything distinguishing two people; such as race and sex. Prevalent in the United States until the early 70's.
Social distance The perceived distance between social strata, as in different socio-economic racial, or ethnic group
Dowry death The deaths of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
Enfranchisement To give the right to vote to.
Gender The state of being male of female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones).
Gender gap The discrepancy in opportunities, status, attitudes, etc., between men and women.
Infanticide The murder of a child. This is considered the most heinous of crimes in almost all societies.
Feminist geography an approach to human geography that focuses on gender relationships as being central to our understanding of how space is created and arranged
Longevity gap difference in the average length of life between males and females
Maternal mortality rate The measure of the risk of dying from causes associated with pregnancy and childbirth.
Eastern Orthodox Church One of the three major branches of Christianity this church together with the Roman Catholic Church arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by emperor Diocletian into for governmental regions to western region centered in Rome and to Eastern region centered in Constantinople in 1054 Christianity was divided along that same line when the Eastern Orthodox Church centered in Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church centered in Rome split
Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national Homeland for them in the Promised Land
Vajrayana Buddhism The branch of Buddhism practiced primarily in Tibet and Mongolia
Christianity Based on the teachings of Jesus. According to Christian teaching, Jesus is son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan