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APHG: UNIT 3.1 VOCAB

This is Unit 3 with Concepts of culture, folk, pop, and language

TermExample
Possibilism the viewpoint that arose as a criticism of environmental determinism, holding that human populations develop their own cultures within constraints set by the environment
Sociofact a culture trait in the sociological subsystem, which is, the part of a culture that guides how people are expected to interact with each other and how their social institutions are structured
Syncretism the development of a new form of culture trait by the fusion of two or more distinct parental traits Romans trying to convert non-Christians into Christians and developing holidays like Easter ETHAN
Hunter-gatherer an economic and social system based primarily or exclusively on the hunting of wild animals and the gathering of food, fiber and other materials from uncultivated plants, insects, eggs and so on.
Ideological Subsystem the complex of ideas, beliefs, knowledge, and means of their communication that characterize a culture, along with the technological and sociological subsystems The mythology of how the angle Lucifer was exiled to earth and became the devil in Christian religion AUGUSTINE
Technological subsystem the complex of material objects together with the techniques of their use by means of which people carry out their productive activities and that characterize a culture, along with the ideological and sociological subsystems
independent invention (parallel invention) innovations developed in two or more unconnected locations by individuals or groups acting independently pyramids of Egypt and Mayan civilization pyramids HANNAH
innovation introduction of new culture traits, whether ideas, practices, or material objects
Multilinear Evolution a concept of independent but parallel cultural development advanced by the anthropologist Julian Steward to explain cultural similarities among widely separated peoples existing in similar environments but who could not have benefited from shared experiences borrowed ideas, or diffused technologies
Acculturation the process of learning how to operate within a new culture; cultural modification or change that results when one culture group or individual adopts traits of a dominant or host society; cultural development or change through 'borrowing'
Assimilation the adoption of a new culture by a migrant and the abandonment of most aspects of an original culture change of dress and behaviors an immigrant may go through when living in a new country ABIGAIL
Contagious Diffusion MOVE CARD
Cultural Adaptation the process and time it takes a person to integrate into a new culture and feel comfortable within it. A person in this position may encounter a wide array of emotions that the theory describes in four different stages. This includes the honeymoon, culture shock, recovery, and adjustment stages. American Indians adapting to listening to modern commodities through the years such as the introduction of jeans, cars, language, and music. NOLAN
Cultural Autonomy Every nation, irrespective of place of domicile of its individual members (irrespective of territory, hence the term “extra-territorial” autonomy) is a united officially recognized association conducting national-cultural affairs. segregation ABIGAIL
Cultural Convergence The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication. The act of countries in Europe interacting with each other leading to the swapping of cultures and overall inclusion of all cultures in areas formally separate NOLAN
Cultural Divergence Sometimes religious beliefs can clash with popular culture, forcing the faithful members of certain cultures to practice cultural divergence. A good example of this is the Amish culture in the United States. The Amish are a type of Christian religious group. The Amish keep separation between themselves and other communities KENDALL
Cultural Core/periphery pattern The core-periphery idea that the core houses main economic power of region and the outlying region or periphery houses lesser economic ties. the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
Cultural ecology MOVE CARD
Culture hearth MOVE CARD
Cultural identity the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. I am Filipino HANNAH
Cultural landscape the cultural impacts on an area, including buildings, agricultural patterns, roads, signs, and nearly everything else that humans have created
cultural realm a geographical region where cultural traits maintain homogeneity. The cultural traits are supposed to be the product of regional geographical circumstances. The entire region throughout which a culture prevails. Criteria that may be chosen to define culture realms include religion, language, diet, customs, or economic development
Cultural system the interaction of different elements of culture. While this is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system. the north and south in the 1800's (pre-civil war) where the south was mostly rural and the act of slavery wasn't shunned. The north shunned Slavery and viewed it as a vile thing also mostly urban NOLAN
Culture Region refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture). These are often associated with an ethnolinguistic group and the territory it inhabits.
Expansion Diffusion MOVE CARD
Hierarchical Diffusion MOVE CARD
Stimulus Diffusion MOVE CARD
Relocation Diffuison MOVE CARD
Innovation Adoption Curve is a model that classifies adopters of innovations into various categories, based on the idea that certain individuals are inevitably more open to adaptation than others. Aka: Multi-step Flow Theory, Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The categories are: Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards
Maladaptive Diffusion diffusion of an idea or innovation that is not suitable for the environment in which it diffused into (e.g., New England-style homes in Hawaii, or Ranch-style homes in northeast US).
Subsequent Occupancy notion that successful societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. The African nation of Tanzania has passed from the hands of one ruler to another with the culture traits of each AUGUSTINE
Public Land Survey System is a way of subdividing and describing land in the United States. All lands in the public domain are subject to subdivision by this rectangular system of surveys, which is regulated by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
Vernacular House is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
Vernacular Region s a distinctive area where the inhabitants collectively consider themselves interconnected by a shared history, mutual interests, and a common identity. Such regions are "intellectual inventions" and a form of shorthand to identify things, people, and places. Tidewater, tri city area KENDALL
Metes-and-bounds mits or boundaries of a tract of land as identified by natural landmarks, such as rivers, or by man-made structures, such as roads, or by stakes or other markers. A principal legal type of land description in the United States, metes-and-bounds descriptions are commonly used wherever survey areas are irregular in size and shape.
Long-Lot System system implemented in Quebec, Louisiana, Texas or areas of French influence, that divide the land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
Heritage Landscape A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man." "a landscape designed and created intentionally by man" an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a relict (or fossil) landscape or a continuing landscape Native American Reservations KENDALL
Rectangular Survey System provides for a unit of land approximately 24 miles square, bounded by base lines running east and west, and meridians running north and south. This 24 mile square is divided into areas six miles square called townships. Townships are further divided into 36 sections, each one mile square.
Transculturation s a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. Buddhism originated in India but spread around and merged with Confucianism. ETHAN
Adaptive Strategies Describes a society's system of economic production -helps explain some of the differences between societies that are influenced by economy.
Anglo-American Landscape distinguished by a set of cultural traits like language, beliefs, customs, norms of behavior, social institutions, way of life, artifacts etc; Influences from Britain caused certain styles of housing. British Architecture in America
Characteristics a feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify it. religion, language, arts, and social organizations SAMAR
Architectural Form the look of housing, effected by the available materials, the environment the house is in, and the popular culture of the time
Built Environment efers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It has been defined as "the humanitarian-made space in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis."
Folk Culture A culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in isolation. The banjo & fiddle are traditional instruments in 'folk culture' NATHAN
Folk Food Food that is traditionally made by the common people of a region and forms part of their culture.
Folk House traditional housing pioneer homes like ,log cabin style homes SAMAR
Folk Songs traditionally sung by the common people of a region and forms part of their culture; typically no skill is required "this land is your land" SAMAR
Folklore unwritten lore (stories, proverbs, riddles, songs) of a culture
Habit a settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up. brushing your teeth every morning and every night is a habit ABIGAIL
Taboo a social or religious custom prohibiting or forbidding discussion of a particular practice or forbidding association with a particular person, place, or thing. In India, cows are extremely sacred and if you eat one it is considered extremely taboo and problematic ETHAN
Terrior the complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced, including factors such as the soil, topography, and climate.
Material Culture efers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture. These include homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, offices, factories and plants, tools, means of production, goods and products, stores, and so forth. cars, books, clothing, computer, etc. SAMAR
Nonmaterial Culture Thoughts or ideas that make up a culture. does not include any physical objects or artifacts. include any ideas, beliefs, values, norms that may help shape society.
Popular Culture culture based on the tastes of ordinary people rather than an educated elite
Survey Systems systems that are used to collect data
Traditional Architecture traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places
Local culture Group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or Community, who share experiences, customs, and traits and who worked to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others the south's teachings of using politeness such as "yes ma'am or no sir" as well as holding the door open which is commonly not done in the north United States NOLAN
Custom The body of traditional practices, usages, and conventions that regulate social life in Japan people greet each other by bowing KENDALL
Cultural Appropriation The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefits bindis, or headdresses HANNAH
Neolocalism A social movement advocating a return to local products, locally owned businesses, and locally controlled institutions in reaction against Mass popular culture and globalization People from China in Chinatown in NYC still celebrate their Chinese culture and holidays, such as the Chinese New Year. ETHAN
Ethnic Neighborhood An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background Chinatown HANNAH
Commodification The process through which something is given monetary value. This occurs when a good or idea that previously was regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular prize and that can be traded in a market economy salt was used for money and big deals KENDALL
Authenticity In the context of local cultures are Customs, the accuracy with which a single stereotypical or Typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs
Distance Decay The declining intensity of a spatial interaction with increasing distance from its point of origin
Reterritorilization With respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own when the Spanish conquered the Aztecs, they eliminated all Aztec symbols AUGUSTINE
Placelessness Define by geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
Global-local Continuum The notion that would happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa. This idea posits that the world is comprised of an interconnected series of relationships that extend across face
Glocalization The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter Regional, National, and Global processes mcdonald’s ABIGAIL
Folk-housing region A region in which the housing stock predominately reflects styles of buildings that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
Diffusion Routes The spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spread
Creolized Language A language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue
Backward Reconstruction The tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backwards towards the original language
Mutual Intelligibility The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking Spanish and Portuguese KENDALL
Geographic Dialect A language variant marked by vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation differences from other variants of the same common language. When those variations are spatial or Regional, they are called Geographic dialects. When they are indicative of socio-economic or educational levels, they are called social dialects
Deep reconstruction Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to recreate the language that preceded the extinct language
Dialect Chains A set of continuous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
Ebonics Dialect spoken by some African-Americans
Extinct Language A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
Ideograms The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound as is the case with letters in English
Isogloss A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Isolated Language A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family
Language A set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
Language Branch A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or is old with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family
Language Family A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Language Subfamily a smaller group of related languages within a language family
Romance Language French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but we're not subsequently overwhelmed
Germanic Language English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish that reflect the expansion of people's out of Northern Europe to the west and south
Slavic Languages Russian, polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, serbo-croatian, and Bulgarian that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
Indo-European Language Language family containing the Germanic and romance languages that includes languages spoken by about 50% of the world's people
Sino-Tibetan Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean
Afro-Asiatic A large language family found primarily in North Africa and Southwest Asia
Niger-Congo A large language family of 1400 languages spoken primarily in Africa
Malayo-Polynesian A large language family of over 1,200 tongues spoken primarily in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific
Language Divergence The process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages or formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages Spanish and Portuguese is a language that has been broken down into two forms AUGUSTINE
Language Convergence A collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages
Lingua Franca A term driving from Frankish language and applying a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish and even some Arabic. Today it refers to a Common Language a language used among speakers of different languages for the purpose of trade and commerce
Global Language The language used most commonly around the world defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in Commerce and trade
Literary Tradition A language that is written as well as spoken
Linguistic Diversity the amount of variation of languages a place has
Monolingual States Countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual states Countries in which more than one language is spoken
official language In multilingual countries the language selected, Often by the educated and politically powerful Elite, to promote internal cohesion. Usually the language of the courts and government The Official languages of Afghanistan are Pashto and Dari KENDALL
Pidgin When parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary Seal Island Creole (Spoken in South Carolinas Sea Islands) Hatian Creole in Louisiana KENDALL
Polyglot A multilingual state
Protolanguage The common ancestor of a family of modern languages
Sound shift Slight change in a word across languages within a sub family or through a language family from the present backwards towards its origin
Proto-Indo-European Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the Hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which Hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Australia
Nostratic Language believed to be the ancestral language not only of proto-indo-european, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the Southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the dravidian languages of India, and the afro-asiatic language family
Toponym Place name
Trade Language A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other. English is a trade language being learned around the world to have the ability to trade with English speaking countries AUGUSTINE
Standard Language The variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual Elite seek to promote as the norm for used in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
Bilingual fluency in at least two languages I speak both English and Spanish AUGUSTINE
Vernacular The non-standard indigenous language or dialect of a locality. Of or related to indigenous arts and architecture, such as a house period of or related to the perceptions and understandings of the general population, such as a region
Vulgar Latin A form of Latin used in Daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents
Renfrew Hypothesis Hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfro wherein he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearths, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe's Indo-European languages from Anatolia, North African and Arabian languages from the Western Arc of the Fertile Crescent, and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India from the Eastern Arc of the Fertile Crescent
Kurgan Theory The Proto-Indo-European language diffused from modern day Ukraine through CONQUEST
culture complex MOVE CARD
Culture A society's Collective beliefs, symbols, values, forms of behavior, and social organizations, together with its tools, structures, and artifacts created according to the group's conditions of Life. Transmitted as a Heritage to succeeding generations and undergoing adoptions, modifications, and changes in the process. A collective term for group displaying uniform characteristics