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APHG: UNIT 2 VOCAB

All the Unit 2 Vocab (Population and Migration) regardless of chapter

WordDefinitionExamples
Brain Drain large-scale immigration by talented people
Emigration The migration from a location migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another) moving FROM Ireland to live in Peru
Immigration migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Internally Displaced Person individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of conflict or human rights abuse
Chain Migration the social process by which immigrants from a particular town follow one another to a different city; refers to the mechanism by which foreign nationals are allowed to immigrate by virtue of the ability of previous adult immigrants
Migration Transition The change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other changes that also produce demographic transitions
Net Migration the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
Place Utility The desirability and usefulness of a place to an individual or to a groups such as a family.
Pull Factor induce people to move to a new location
Push Factor induce people to leave old tendencies religious persecution
Refugee people who are forced to migrate from their home country and caannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group or political opinion
Rust Belt The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Sun Belt U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II. the states of Florida, Georgia, SouthCarolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and California
Cyclic Movement Movement - for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally going to work in Gulfport then going home after
Forced Migration human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate Ex. A group of people exiled from a country trail of tears and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Intercontinental MIGRATION migration flow involving movement across international borders
Internal Migration Migration that occurs within a single country's border individuals in Mississippi migrating to big cities with better opportunities like Los Angeles and New York If I moved from Florida to California (westward and southward movements in the U.S.)
Migratory Movement movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another
Migration a change in residence intended to be permanent Geese fly south for the winter
International Migration movement across international borders (also known as transnational migration) Ex- If I moved from the U.S. to Amsterdam. illegal immigrants
Interregional Migration Permanent movement from one region of a country to another. Ex. Moving from the south to the west coast
Step Migration migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city from farm to nearby village to town to city
Voluntary Migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice. Ex. Jobs moving to another country to look for work
Laws of Migration Created by Ernst Ravenstein (British demographer) to predict the flow of migrants Ex- 1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration 2. The majority of migrants move a short distance 3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations 4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas 5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
Agricultural Density : MOVE CARD FROM UNIT 1
Arithmetic Density : MOVE CARD FROM UNIT 1
Physiological Density: MOVE CARD FROM UNIT 1
Crude Birth Rate the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Crude birth rate- in 2015 it was 12.4 in the US
Crude Death Rate: the number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Crude death rate- in 2016 it was 8.4 in the US
Generation X: the generation born after that of the baby boomers (roughly from the early 1960s to late 1970s), often perceived to be disaffected and directionless; A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years 1965 and 1980. This post-baby-boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years.
Census Tract Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Demographic Equation : An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration.
Population Demographic: also known as demography. Broadly defined, it is the study of the characteristics of populations. It provides a mathematical description of how those characteristics change over time.
Momentum: is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic regions: Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in. Ex. Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). Denmark in stage 4
Demography the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.
Diffusion of Fertility Control The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world. Ex. In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the Middle East it is above 4.
Food Security A person, a household or even a country has assured access to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives EBT an dSNAP
Fertility how many people are born in a certain time period
Genocide the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. holocaust
One-Child Policy Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children(if the first child is a girl or ethnic minority) in the countryside created in 1980; implemented as a way to control its explosive growth rate; families punished financially and with held from educational opportunities for violations
Doubling Time the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. Canada's net population growth of 0.9% in the year 2006, dividing 70 by 0.9 gives an approximate doubling time of 78 year
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Nonecumene Area of the Earth's surface that humans consider too harsh for occupancy (approx. 35-40%).
Gendered Space areas or regions designed for men or women Ex. Men/Women's restrooms
Megalopolis an extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C. New York City and it’s surrounding areas is a megalopolis.
Maladptation an adaptation that is less helpful than harmful; It can also signify an adaptation that, whilst reasonable at the time, has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on.
Mortality Rate the number of deaths in a given area or period, or from a particular cause.
Natality the ratio of the number of births to the size of the population; birth rate.
Population Density a measurement of the number of persons per unit of land area
Population Distribution the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven. Places which are sparsely populated contain few people. Places which are densely populated contain many people. Sparsely populated places tend to be difficult places to live. These are usually places with hostile environments e.g. Antarctica. Places which are densely populated are habitable environments e.g. Europe.
Population Projection a statement of a population's future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data Ex. The world population could exceed 9 Billion by the end of the century.
Population Pyramid A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
Rate of Natural Increase birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth without considering net migration
Replacement Level the amount of fertility needed to keep the population the same from generation to generation. It refers to the total fertility rate that will result in a stable population without it increasing or decreasing.
S-curve A curve that depicts logistic growth
J-curve A growth curve that depicts exponential growth
Total Fertility Rate The number of children who would be born per woman (or per 1,000 women) if she/they were to pass through the childbearing years bearing children according to a current schedule of age-specific fertility rates.
Sustainability avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance.
Underpopulation circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants.
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Ex. A city that can't produce as much food as there are people. India is known for its overpopulation.
Zero Population Growth when the birth rate equals the death rate
Neolithic Revolution sometimes called the Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making possible an increasingly larger population.
Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production
Industrial Revolution a period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. ... This time period saw the mechanization of agriculture and textile manufacturing and a revolution in power, including steam ships and railroads, that effected social, cultural and economic conditions. James Watts steam engine that could pump water far more efficiently than water mills
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. X-ray and Antibiotics
Boserup Thesis the view that pop. growth independently forces a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
Neo-Malthusianism Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations. even though Malthus’ didn’t take into account of globalization
Demographic Transition Model A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time. Stage 1 is low growth (low stationary), Stage 2 is High Growth (early expanding), Stage 3 is Moderate Growth (late expanding), and Stage 4 is Low Growth (low stationary), and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population growth.
Epidemiological Model distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition; stages 1 and 2 are the stages of pestilence and famine, infectious and parasitic diseases, and accidents and attacks by animals and other humans; stages 3 and 4 are the stages of degenerative and human-created diseases. Stage 5 is the stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Ex. cardiovascular diseases and cancer
Expansive Population Policies an official government policy designed to encourage the population to conceive and raise multiple children; are most common in Western and Northern Europe where birth rates are some of the lowest in the world. Russia and cars
Restrictive Population Policies Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase; designed to favor one racial sector over others
Disease Diffusion occurs when a disease is transmitted to a new location. It implies that a disease spreads, or pours out, from a central source. The idea of showing the spread of disease using a diffusion pattern is relatively modern, compared to earlier methods of mapping disease, which are still used today.
Infant Mortality Rate the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births in 2018 Afghanistan the infant mortality rate was 57 compared to...
Standard of Living the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier income, safety, climate
Chronic or Degenerative Diseases generally long lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancy; typically last 3 months or more, by the definition of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics; generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear. ... Cardiovascular disease is a growing concern in the US. Parkinson’s disease is an example of a chronic/ degenerative disease.
Genetic or inherited Diseases Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human
Endemic AIDS a disease that is particular to a locality or region; this disease is the leading cause of death in many African nations and has spread to every continent, shortening life expectancies world wide HIV-2 is endemic to West Africa
Infectious Disease Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Most are diffused directly or indirectly from human to human Cholera and Ebola are both infectious diseases that diffuse directly from human to human.
Population Pyramid is a graph that shows the age-sex distribution of a given population. It a graphic profile of the population’s residents. Sex is shown on the left/right sides, age on the y-axis, and the percentage of population on the x-axis. Each grouping (ex: males aged 0-4) is called a cohort; does not tell you the actual population in numbers. Rather, it displays percentages and shows what portion of people fall into each cohort.
Age Distribution the proportionate numbers of persons in successive age categories in a given population. ... A population with persistently high fertility, for instance, has a large proportion of children and a small proportion of aged persons. in Spain the age distribution is that there are more adults and older people than children.
Cohort a category of people with something in common, usually their age Ex. College towns with college students
Sex Ratio the proportion of males to females in a population
Carrying Capacity largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Dependency Ratio is a measure showing the number of dependents, aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, to the total population, aged 15 to 64
Baby Boom a cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility
Baby Bust Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. As such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast the the baby boom in which fertility rates were quite high
Thomas Malthus Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows as an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that eventually population growth would outpace food production
Karl Marx the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded
Ester Boserup Geographer who developed the theory that subsistence farmers want the most leisure time they can have, so they farm in ways that will allow them both to feed their families and to maximize free time; theory also posited that farmers will change their approach to farming if the population increases and more food is needed, thus making the food supply dependent on human innovation, rather than humans dependent on the food supply.
nomadism lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources. gypsies
personal space the physical space immediately surrounding someone, into which any encroachment feels threatening to or uncomfortable for them. someone’s area around them where they feel comfortable
counter urbanization demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas. It first took place as a reaction to inner-city deprivation and overcrowding. in the 1970s crime in the city caused people to want to flee the city completely to urban areas
guest worker a person with temporary permission to work in another country. an immigrant in the US with a visa to temporarily earn money for their family before have to return home
kinship links types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success immigrants migrating to certain parts of New York due to the location of family members already there
migratory movement movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another immigrants migrating to the US for better opportunities without the thought of returning home
transhumance the action or practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle, typically to lowlands in winter and highlands in summer. how livestock is moved between one area of pasture to another
colonization the action or process of settling among and establishing control over the indigenous people of an area. target; France colonized most of North Africa
islands of development Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure. targets
space time prism the set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time. If you walk to school side of the prism are steep and space available for activity is narrow. If you have a car,it takes less time to get places, and the range of possibilities expand
repatriations the return of someone to their own country. A German soldier died ,in war, in the us his body was then was shipped back to Germany
periodic movement motion that recurs over and over and the period of time required for each recurrence remains the same millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment
quota a fixed minimum or maximum number of a particular group of people allowed to do something, such as immigrants to enter a country, workers to undertake a job, or students to enroll for a course OPEC set a quota for crude oil in order to maintain the price:
intervening obstacle An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. when you are on a road trip but a car accident holds you up one hour or makes you go around; As the Hernandez family makes their way to the US, they find themselves in Mexico City with a good job and economic status and, thus, decide to stay.
asylum the protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political refugee. May 2018 people go to America and out of 300 about 150 seek asylum