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DU PA Stool Studies

Duke PA Stool Studies

how does a FOBT work based on oxidation of guaiac by hydrogen peroxide, resulting in development of a blue color on card when exposed to heme found in stool
3 days prior to FOBT avoid red meats, >250mg vitamin C
7 days prior to FOBT avoid NSAIDS/Aspirin (>325)
FOBT specimens are ideally innoculated onto card at least __ days prior to developing test 3
If immediate results are required for FOBT, wait at least __ minutes prior to development 3-5
causes FOBT false positives red meats, aspirin, NSAIDS, alcohol, steroids, anticoagulants, chemotherapeutics, iodine preps
causes FOBT false positives vitamin C >250mg/day
__ detects presence of leukocytes methylene blue
__ indicative of invasive infective organisms or other inflammatory bowel disorders fecal leukocytes
stool cultures are not routinely __ gram stained
fecal leukocytes will be absent in norovirus, rotavirus, CMV, ETEC and EHEC, giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, S. aureus, B. cereus, C. perfringens
infectious causes of present fecal leukocytes shigella, campylobacter, EIEC, Entero, Ivasive E. coli
an inflammatory protozoal infection. intact fecal leukocytes may not be seen Entamoeba hisotlytica
an inflammatory viral agent (usually in immunocompromised patients) causes ulceration with viral inclusion bodies within cells on intestinal biopsy CMV
predominant causative enterotoxin for Pseudomembranous colitis C. difficile toxin A
when assessing a patient for C. diff it is the __ that you are looking for toxin
three most commonly screened pathogens in stool cultures salmonella, shigella, and campylobacter
when doing a stool culture a fresh or unpreserved stool should be delivered to the lab in <__ hours 2
IFA indirect immunofluorescence assay utilizes monoclonal antibodies to identify __ giardia cysts
__ is extrememly sensitive and specific for H. pylori urea breath test
when looking for __ don't send for culture, you look for indirect evidence for the organism giardia cysts
for detection of malabsorption disorders which result in steatorrhea (celiac/tropical sprue, Whipples dz, ZE, Crohn's) used more as a screening tool due to more specific testing for each disorder fecal fat studies
flock of seagulls on gram stain campylobacter
diarrhea acute in onset and persisting for less than 2 weeks is most commonly caused by __ infectious agents, bacterial toxins, or drugs
community outbreaks of diarrhea suggest __ viral etiology or shared food source
day care attendance or exposure to unpurified water may result in infection with giardia, or cryptosporidium
watery, nonbloody diarrhea associated with periumbilical cramps, bloating, nausea, or vomiting suggests __. because tissue invasion does not occur there will be no fecal leukocytes small bowel source that disrupts normal absorption and secretory processes
prominent vomiting suggests __ viral enteritis or S. aureus food poisoning
the presence of fever and bloody diarrhea indicates __ colonic tissue damage caused by invasion or a toxin
diarrhea that originates in the __ is high volume small intestine
diarrhea that originates in the __ is low volume large intestine
organisms that may cause fever and bloody diarrhea from invasion of colon tissue shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, yersinia or toxins (C. difficile, E. coli O157:H7)
organisms that may cause watery non-bloody diarrhea from disruption of small bowel activity enterotoxigenic E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, C. perfringens, giardia
a shiga-toxin producing non-invasive organism most commonly acquired from contaminated meat E. coli O157:H7
watery, nonbloody diarrhea associated with periumbilical cramps, bloating, nausea, or vomiting. fecal leukocytes often not present noninflammatory diarrhea
fever and small volume bloody diarrhea, associated with LLQ cramps, urgency, and tenesmus. fecal leukocytes often present inflammatory diarrhea
if diarrhea worsens or persists for more than 7 days, stool should be sent for __ fecal leukocytes or lactoferrin determination, ovum and parasite evaluation, and bacterial culture
Created by: bwyche