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World History

Quarter 4 Final Review Guide

How did colonial powers in the 19c harm their colonies? Discrimination and poor treatment of native people, high taxes, low wages
Who was the colony of Singapore established by? Great Britain
What was a major goal of Dr. Livingston? Open up central Africa to Europe through a river
What country seized Cape Town and the surrounding lands from the Dutch? Great Britain
What Indian industry did the British damage during their colonial reign? Textiles
How did Indian tax collectors exploit the Indian people? Increased taxes
How did Europeans view imperialism as a moral responsibility? Hint: Explain the White Man’s Burden and its effects on colonization. Europeans were morally obligated to “civilize” the native people of the their colonies
Explain the concept of Cape to Cairo. Connect Africa by rail and communications
What were colonial powers looking to gain from their colonies? Raw materials
Unlike the French, how did the British prefer to rule over their colonies? Direct Rule
Why was Egypt so strategically important to the British? Connects Se Asia through the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Explain the life of Africans under European rule. Discrimination, hard work in dangerous jobs, high taxes, little to no say in government
What was the role of King Leopold in the devastation of the Congo? He enslaved natives and created various rival factions, created a child army, depleted the natural resources, did not bring any of the modern advancements of Europe to the Congo (medicine, shools)
How did the Congolese lose control of their land to the Belgians? They were tricked and forced to sign land treaties without fair and proper knowledge
What did Western nations hope to gain by establishing new colonies after 1880? Power and influence, raw goods, territory
What was the Berlin Conference? Meeting of European powers to determine the rules to colonize Africa and which country will control specific territories across Africa
What role did the Industrial Revolution play in colonization? It fueled the need for raw materials
Why did Japan decide to pursue imperialist policies? It was small and needed resources
What was the Qing dynasty's self-strengthening policy? Adopt Western education and technology but keep Confucian values
What changed under the reign of Emperor Mutsuhito in Japan? Japan became modern, the feudal system went away, called the Meiji Restoration
Why did the United States propose the Open Door policy toward China? The United States wanted the same access to China as other nations
The Qing dynasty was weakened by pressure from the West as well as by what other issues? Internal issues, rebellions, food shortages and economic problems
What was the Boxer Rebellion and who was involved? The Boxer rebellion occurred when “Boxers” secret society members killed foreigners and missionaries
What were the agreements made in the Treaty of Nanjing and with whom? China gives up Hong Kong to Britain as a result of the Opium Wars
What was the long-standing foreign policy that both China and Japan adhered to? Isolationism
Why did Britain trade opium in China? How did the Opium trade lead to the Opium Wars? To even out the balance of trade. China enforced restrictions on Opium and Britain went to war
How did foreign countries establish spheres of influence in China? Foreign nations would work with local warlords rather than the Qing government
What was the Taiping Rebellion? A peasant rebellion over economic problems led by Hong Xiuquan
Why were tensions heightened among countries in Europe after 1900? Countries were forming alliances and mobilizing for war, nationalism
What did inflation and unemployment in Germany during the Great Depression pave the way for? Authoritarian leaders-the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party
How was the war effort on the Western Front characterized? Eastern Front? Western-trench warfare and stalemate East-mobility, high casualties, especially Russia
How did Serbia anger Austria-Hungary? By not handing over terrorist group the Black Hand after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife
How did industrialization in Europe affect their militaries? New weapons and technology, old battle tactics
What is total war? Involving the complete mobilization of resources and people-affects lives of all citizens
How was Russia unprepared for war? Incompetent leaders and not enough weapons, poor infrastructure
What events occurred after Czar Nicholas abdicated the throne? Russia’s civil war
Why did Civil war break out in Russia after World War I? Bolsheviks wanted to institute communism and loyalists, land-owners, the church and others were opposed
What was a result of the February Revolution in Russia? Czar Nicholas abdicated the throne
What were the legacies of World War I? The breakup of many empires (Ottoman, Austria-Hungary)
Which nations were the first to get involved in the initial conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary? Russia and Germany
What was the purpose of Stalin’s Five-Year Plan? To modernize Russia and increase its industrial output
Who were the Bolsheviks? Mensheviks? The Bolsheviks were the radical communists led by Lenin -the Mensheviks were politically moderate
What is fascism? The belief that a strong authoritarian government is best/dictator
Describe the role Karl Marx and his Communist Manifesto played in the Russian Revolution. Karl Marx’s vision of “pure communism” inspired the leaders of the revolution to establish a communist government in Russia. Marx’s vision of communism was not achieved
What was Lenin’s role in the Russian Revolution? He was the leader of the Bolsheviks and the first communist leader of the Soviet Union
How did India try to gain independence from the British? Political organizing (INC), civil disobedience, boycotts, protests
What was the goal of the Indian National Congress? Through peaceful means, achieve eventual self-rule
What was the British influence on India? British customs and culture influenced India, their institutionsinfluenced itspolitical and economic development
Who was Jawaharlal Nehru and who supported him? Member of Indian National Congress, fought for secular, independent India, first prime minister of India
What is civil disobedience? Not obeying an unjust law
What is the doctrine of Ahimsa? Reverence for all life/non-violence
Explain the idea of home-rule. The political institutions should be controlled by the native people of the nation
What was the partition of 1947? After Indian independence, violence between Hindus and Muslims led to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan
Define Nationalism and how it was used in India to push for home-rule. Political nationalism- The political institutions should be controlled by the native people of the nation Economic nationalism- the economic systems of a nation should benefit the people of that nation
How did Mohandas Gandhi protest British laws? By boycotting British products
How did the Amritsar massacre affect the movement for Indian independence? The massacre of 400 innocents led people to demand immediate self-rule and for the British to leave
Why did the Nationalists and the Communists form an alliance in China in 1923? To defeat the imperialists, the local warlords and the Japanese
Who was the group that supported Mao Zedong after the Chinese revolution? The peasants
The Great Leap Forward was the communist’s attempt to modernize China. What did the government have society focus on? Steel production and farming
Which ethnic group was a victim of genocide by the Ottoman Turks? Armenians
What was Chiang Kai-shek’s “New Life Movement”? To embrace and teach traditional Confucian ideals, but reject Western capitalism
Explain both The Great Leap Forward. Be sure to describe three reasons for why it was a disaster. The Great Leap Forward was an attempt to modernize and industrialize China. Mao encouraged everyone to produce steel. This led to food shortages and famine where 20 million died
Explain The Cultural Revolution. The Cultural Revolution was an attempt to modernize Chinese culture. It relied on young people to police the “old” institutions-schools, jobs, parents, culture
What was the Long March? Communist troops retreating across China to escape the Nationalist Army
Who was Chiang Kai-shek and who supported him? Leader of the Nationalist party- anti-communist
Who was Mao Zedong and who supported him? Leader of the Communist Party. Supported by the peasants and Red Guard
Who did Mao believe would drive the Chinese revolution? Peasants
Who was the Red Guard? Disillusioned young people who policed their communities for people who represented the “4 olds”
What was The Marshall Plan designed to do? The United States would provide money to re-build Europe and Japan
Why did the United States and the Soviet Union become rivals after WWII? Each wanted to be the most influential world power and each had competing political philosophy and world view (communism vs. democracy)
What is the policy on containment? To stop the spread of communism
Who was the communist leader that led troops to a victory during the Chinese civil war? Mao Zedong
What was the Truman Doctrine designed to do? Provided money to countries that felt threatened by communism
Describe how proxy wars were used in the Cold War. Be specific in regards to Guatemala, Vietnam, Cambodia and China. Answers will vary
What was the Arms Race? Both the US and Soviet Union stockpiled weapons in order to have more than the other
What was COMECON? Soviet response to the Marshall Plan. Aid to Eastern Europe in the form of railroads, pipelines, and power grids
How was the Cuban Missile Crisis tied to the Cold War? Soviets used Cuba for its proximity to the United States. Soviets could launch a missile that would reach the United States from Cuba
Israel-Palestine, South Africa and Rwanda... What are settlements? Jewish homes and developments inside Palestine
Why do Jews claim the land? Why do Arabs? Israel-God gave them the land, were there first, sacred sites Arabs-There the longest, sacred sites, not included during partition talks with UN-so Israel not legit
What is Hamas? The elected government of the Gaza Strip, considered a terrorist organization by Israel and US
What is Zionism? The belief and political movement that the Jews deserve a homeland-specifically Israel
What European country colonized South Africa? The Dutch
What was apartheid? The Dutch laws and government of South Africa that included legal segregation
What type of laws existed under apartheid? No intermarriage-Separate public facilities-South Africans stripped of their citizenship and forced to relocate in homelands-no representation in government-white only jobs
Where were all black South Africans forced to live? Homelands
Who was elected president in the first multi-racial elections in South Africa in 1994? Nelson Mandela
What did the Rugby World Cup win symbolize? That blacks and whites could live together peacefully
Why did black South Africans have to carry passbooks? As a way for the apartheid government to control the black population
Which European country was responsible for colonizing Rwanda? Belgium
What was the interhamwe? How did they spread their message? Hutu militia group that carried out the genocide against the Tutsi. Radio
What was the US response to Rwanda? Nothing. It was not technically labeled a genocide by the US government
Created by: PLHSWorld1