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Medical Terminology

Chapter 18 - Endocrine System

what do hormones do? act as the messenger and regulate the activities of the body and maintain homeostasis
what do endocrine glands do? secrete their hormones directly into the blood stream
what glands make up the endocrine system? (1) thyroid gland (2) parathyroid gland (3) adrenal gland (4) pancreas (5) pituitary gland (6) ovaries (7) testes (8) pineal gland (9) thymus gland
what tissue is included in the endocrine system? (1) body cells (2) gastrointestinal tract (3) kidney (4) placenta (5) skin
what do exocrine glands do? send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the outside of the body
what does the pineal gland do? (1) produces melatonin, which affects sleep patterns (2) contains lymphatic tissue and T cell lymphocytes
what 3 hormones does the thyroid gland secrete? (1) tetraiodothyronineT4 (2) triiodothyronine T3 (3) calcitonin
the thyroid glands secretes triiocothryonine and thyroxine, what do these do? increases metabolism
the thyroid glands secretes calcitonin, what does it do? decreases blood calcium (stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones)
what do the parathyroid gland do? (1) mobilizes calcium from bones and into the blood stream (2) calcium is requires to help body tissue function properly
the adrenal gland has two parts, what are they? (1) adrenal cortex (outer portion) (2) adrenal medulla (inner portion)
what does the adrenal cortex do? secretes corticosteroids or steroids, a chemical derived from cholesterol
what does the adrenal medulla do? secretes catecholamines, chemicals derived from amino acids
what does the adrenal cortex secrete? there are 3 (1) glucocorticoids (2) mineralocorticoids (3) gonadocorticoids
the adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids, what does it do? it produces cortisol that helps to regulate glucose, fat and protein metabolism
the adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, what does it do? (1) it produces aldosterone that regulates the concentration of electrolytes in the body (2) it acts on the kidney to reabsorb sodium and water and to secrete potassium
the adrenal cortex secretes sex hormones, what does it do? it produces androgen and estrogen that influences secondary sex characteristics
the adrenal medulla secretes catecholamine, what does it do? (1) it produces epinephrine - HR & BP increase, dilates bronchial tubes, releases stored glucose when the body needs more energy (2) it produces norepinephrine - constricts blood vessels to raise blood pressure
the pancreas is part of the endocrine system, why? (1) consists of specialized hormone-producing cells within the Islets of Langerhans (2) produces insulin and glucagon (3) regulates blood sugars
the hypothalamus and pituitary glands work together to do what? (1) the hypothalamus controls secretions made by the pituitary gland (2) special secretory neurons in the hypothalamus send releasing and inhibiting hormones that either stimulate or inhibit secretions of hormones from the anterior/posterior pituitary.
there are two parts to the pituitary glands, what are they? (1) anterior (2) posterior
what 5 hormones does the anterior pituitary gland produce? (1) growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin hormone (STH) (2) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (3) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (4) gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH) (5) Prolactin (PRL)
the anterior pituitary gland produces growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin hormon (STH), what does it do? promotes protein synthesis that results in growth of bones, muscles, and other tissues
the anterior pituitary gland produces thyroid stimulating hormone, what does it do? stimulates growth of thyroid gland and secretions of T4 and T3
the anterior pituitary gland produces adrenocorticotropic hormones, what does it do? stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones
the anterior pituitary gland produces gonadotropic hormones, what does it do? stimulates growth and hormone secretion of the ovaries and testes
the anterior pituitary gland produces prolactin, what does it do? stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth
what does the posterior pituitary gland do? stores and releases hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus
the posterior pituitary gland stores and releases which hormones? (1) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys and increase BP (2) oxytocin (OT) - stimulates uterine contractions and causes milk production
what hormones do the ovaries produce? (1) estrogen - stimulates the development of ova and secondary sex characteristics (2) progesterone - preparation and maintenance of the uterus in pregnancy
what hormone does the testes produce? testosterone - stimulates development of sperm and secondary sex characteristics
hormones can be secreted by tissue, what are they? (1) erythropoietin (kidneys) (2) human chronic gonadotropin (placenta) (3) cholecystokinin (gallbladder)
Created by: KariTansowny



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