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2016 Grade 9 Final

2016 Grade 9 Final Review

Paleolithic Age: ( Old Stone Age ) 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE
NEANDERTHALS: Nomadic Hunters and gatherers. Moved in search of food, following animal migrations Lived in small groups of 20-30. Men – hunted large game, women- hunted smaller game and gathered
Neolithic Age Gradual shift from: Nomadic lifestyle --> settled, stationery lifestyle. Hunting/Gathering --> agricultural production and domestication of animals.
The Rise of Civilization Cites Central governments Traditional economy Organized Religion Social classes Art and architecture Roads, bridges, and other public works System of writing Specialized jobs
Cities and Central Government Farmers cultivated the land along river valleys and produced surplus food. Surplus food led to increased population. Developed to make sure that enough food was produced and that the city was protected Public works such as roads, bridges, walls built
Traditional Economy Traditional economies based on farming grew up in early civilizations. Skilled craft workers made pottery, cloth, and other goods
Organized Religion Polytheistic, believing in more than one god. Priests and worshippers tried to gain favor with the gods through complex rituals They hoped that the gods would ensure plentiful crops and protect their cities
System of Writing Writing may have first developed in temples, where many types of records were kept. Early writing was picture writing, consisting of simple drawings. Over time the writing became more symbolic.
Egypt People settled along the Nile river. Yearly floods soaked the land Silt the kept the agriculture areas fertile
Silt The kept the agriculture areas fertile
Polytheistic Belief in more than one god. ....ex. Egyptians gods
mummification prepared their dead for the afterlife through a preservation process
Pharaoh. The Egyptian Ruler. The Egyptians believed that he was both a God and a King.
Dynasties After the death of a Pharaoh, power usually passed to another member of the family
Egyptian Social Structure The Pharaoh held the highest social position Priests were next as they serves the gods and goddesses Nobles – they fought the Pharaoh’s wars Craftsmen and merchants Peasant famers – largest group Slaves
Mesopotamia - Geography Northeast of Nile Next to Persian Gulf Rich soils - Fertile Crescent Few Natural Barriers - easy to invade Tigris and Euprates - Mesopotamia, "between the Rivers"
Mesopotamia: The site of a succession of Early Civilizations, including Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria. Writing was invented Organized religions developed Governments based on Kingship and written codes of law Technology and the arts flourished
Sumerians First civilization in Mesopotamia
Ziggurat (pyramid temples with wide steps...on top was a chief god
SUMERIAN RELIGION Polytheistic, controlled every aspect of life. They thought gods and goddesses had the same emotions as regular people. Believed in afterlife...after death went into underworld. Unpredictable flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Sumerian Government Sumer included many independent city-states Competed for land and water War rulers eventually become inherited rulers Mayor like city-state rulers had bureaucracies
irrigation systems using dikes and canals to provide protection from floods as well as water for their crops
Cuneiform writing a wedge form writing
The Code of Hammurabi 25. If a fire break out in a man’s house and a man who goes to extinguish it cast his eye on the household property of the owner of the house, and take the household property of the owner of the house, that man shall be thrown into the fire.
Olmec The first civilization of Mesoamerica
Aztec Contributions - Learning and Science Developed calendar Established schools and recorded historical events Aztec medical practitioners could set broken bones and treat dental cavities.
Aztec Contributions - Architecture and Engineering Tenochtitlan was one of the greatest achievements in Mesoamerican civilization
Aztec Contributions - Agriculture Developed fertilizers and converted swampy land into productive farmland. Built chinampas – small islands made of earth on reed mats that were anchored to the shallow bed of Lake Texcoco – floating gardens
Animism The belief that all living and nonliving things in nature have a spirit. Was often combined with ancestor worship.
Hinduism India. Belief in one unifying spirit, Brahman. Brahman can manifest in many, polytheistic, forms or in one, monotheistic.
Reincarnation (Spirits return to earth many times in different forms trying to become one with Brahman). The soul moves up or down a hierarchy depending on their behavior in life.
Karma The sum of all your deeds, good and bad.
Dharma Duties dependent on your position, gender and occupation.
The caste system Distinct social classes in which everyone knew their place and believed that if they followed the dharma of their caste, they would be reincarnated into a better caste.
Buddhism founded by Siddhartha Gautama in northern India. Spread through cultural diffusion to eastern Asia, including China, Thailand, Korea and Japan.
Four Noble Truths 1. All life is suffering 2. Suffering is caused by desire for things that are illusions. 3. The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire. 4. Following the Eightfold path will help people to overcome desire.
Judaism According to Jewish tradition, God chose the Hebrews and helped them to escape slavery in Egypt. Judaism was one of the first monotheistic religions.
Basic Beliefs of Judaism ~The Torah is a sacred scripture recording laws and events in Jewish history. ~The Old Testament of the Bible includes the Torah. 10 Commandments describe how people should behave toward God and one another.
Christianity Believe that Jesus was a Messiah, or savior. accepted the Ten Commandments . The Bible
Islam Prophet, Muhammad. Traveled to Medina in a journey. Follow scriptures called the Quran. Five Pillars
Spread of Islam In the 150 years following the death of Muhammad, Islam spread through trade, missionaries and conquest into Asia and Africa.
China’s geography (Mountains, deserts, jungles, and an ocean) isolated Chinese culture from other civilizations.
Middle Kingdom. Having little contact with other cultures, Traded very little with Middle East and beyond.
Clan groups of families
Shang the First dynasty or ruling family of China
Ying and Yang The Chinese believed in the delicate balance between two forces of the universe, When these forces were in balance, peace and prosperity would result.
The Mandate of Heaven The leader must lead by ability and virtue. The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.
Zhou Contributions Silk
Great Wall Built to keep out invaders
Han Contributions Paper, Silk Road
Effects of Greek Geography Sea provided link to trade and cultural exchange with Mediterranean communities. Organized into polis (independent city states) separated by seas and rugged mountains
Homer “Iliad” and “Odyssey” describe the Trojan War. Approximately 1194-1184 BCE Greeks vs Troy
Polis (city states) = all had its own form of government, laws and money  (Corinth, Thebes, Athens, Sparta)
Athenian Democracy Council of 500  Assembly  Courts The People governed themselves, debating and voting individually on issues great and small, from matters of war and peace to the proper qualifications for ferry-boat captains 
Direct Democracy All the male citizens would gather, discussed  the issues, and then voted on them.
Socrates Know thyself! question everything
Plato The Academy The Republic  philosopher-king
Aristotle Student of Plato – Teacher of Alexander the Great Developed Logic Scientific Method
Hippocrates Father of Medicine Causes of diseases
Sparta A warrior and military state  (state above individual). Boys started military training at the age of 7; joined military at age of 20; end of military service at the age of 60 Soldiers given land which was farmed by the helots
Greek Philosophers Philosophers:  Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Establishment of philosophical schools that examine issues such as true knowledge, the soul, love, beauty and scientific learning
Hellenistic Era Spread of Greek culture and language throughout Near East, Mediterranean and Asia Minor Exported Greek culture: architecture, politics, law, literature, philosophy, religion, and art as models of perfection
Persian Empire Established by Cyrus The Great. Spanned from India to the Asia Minor Sought to extend their rule into the Greek city-states
Pericles Athens became extremely powerful during this time period and would attempt to exert this dominance over the other city-states
Golden Age Pperiod of massive cultural and intellectual achievement
Peloponnesian War The Athenian attempt to dominate over the city-states would lead to the Spartans leading opposing city-states against the Athenians.
Alexander the Great King at 20, dead at 32 Finest general in antiquity Student of Aristotle Storms through Greece in two months and assures his rule. Abolishes taxes in Macedonia. Spreads Greek culture over a very wide area, thus creating Hellenistic civilization
Republic a form of government where people elect representatives.
The Twelve Tables Providing political and social rights for the plebeians
Roman Innovations Roads to travel on, aqueducts to bring water into the city. Stadiums and amphitheaters for the entertainment of the people. Developed the use of the arch.
Roman Senate Led the Roman Empire. They made the laws for the republic.
Stoicism stressed the importance of being a good citizen.
Roman Law There was equal treatment under the law in Rome and people were considered innocent until proved guilty when accused of a crime.
Pax Romana Rome lived in peace for 200 years .The Peace of Rome.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome Grown too large.Tax problems and couldn’t raise enough money to keep the roads from crumbling. Slavery, corrupt generals, civil wars, and economic problems.
Constantinople Was named for emperor Constantine. Constantine was important because he legalized Christianity in the empire. Became a leading center of trade.
Constantinople is captured The split in the church weakened the Byzantine Empire. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire came to an end.
Changes in Western Europe Repeated invasions and constant warfare ended the Western Roman Empire: Disruption of Trade Downfall of Cities--Cities were abandoned. Population Shift--People move from cities to countryside (rural). People turned to church for order and security.
The Feudal System King Lord Lesser Lords (Vassals) Knights Peasants (Serfs) Military Service & Labor & Loyalty Land & Protection
The manor system An economic arrangement between a lord and his serfs. The lord provides serfs with housing, strips of farmland, and protection from bandits. Serfs tended the lord’s lands, cared for his animals, and performed other tasks to maintain the estate.
Chivalry Knights were bound by a strict code. Knights were expected to be brave, loyal, true to their word and protective of women and those weaker than them
Charlemagne Ruled over a large empire in what is now France, Germany and parts of Italy. Encouraged learning and set up schools. He also rescued the Pope from Roman attackers, thereby spreading his empire and Christianity.
Beginnings of the Crusades In 1093, Byzantine emperor Alexius I wrote a letter to Pope Urban Ito join his war against the Muslim Turks, so Holy Land could be controlled by Christians once again. Pope Urban II declared a holy war in the East and the Truce of God in the West.
Battle of Hastings Oct. 14, 1066 -- the Normans and Saxons fought the battle that changed the course of English history.
King Henry Strengthened the royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to every part of England at least once a year. They collected taxes, settled lawsuits, and punished crimes. Introduced the use of the jury in English courts.
Magna Carta (Great Charter). This guaranteed the nobles certain basic political rights. Put a limit on the king’s powers.
Parliament: House of Commons (Knights & Burgesses) House of Lords (Nobles & Bishops)
Created by: JImmyjet81