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GI Physiology

Gastroenterology

QuestionAnswer
7 GI layers (outer to inner) Serosa, longitudinal muscle, Auerbach/myenteric plexus, circular muscle, submucosa (Meissner plexus), mucosa (muscularis mucosa, lamina propria, epithelium)
MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) is in which layer? Lamina propria
3 pairs of major salivary glands Parotid, submandibular, suplingual
Superficial layer of esophagus is called ___. It is not serosa because ___. Adventitia. Because its areolar connective tissue is not covered by mesothelium, and bc its connective tissue merges with connective tissue of surrounding structures.
In the stomach, chief cells secrete (2): pepsinogen and gastric lipase
In the stomach, parietal cells produce (2): intrinsic factor and HCl
In the stomach, G cells secrete (1): gastrin
Function of stellate reticuloendothelial (Kupffer) cells: Fixed phagocytes that are located in sinusoids: destroy old WBC, RBC, bacteria, other foreign matter in venous blood from GI tract
In intestine, function of paneth cells (2) secrete lysozyme; phagocytosis
Enteroendocrine cells in small intestine (3): S cells, CCK cells, K cells
S cells secrete: secretin
CCK cells secrete: CCK (cholecystokinin)
K cells secrete: GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide)
Duodenal (Brunner's) glands secrete: alkaline mucus (neutralizes gastric acid in chyme)
Fetal development: GI tract first rises in the: endoderm (forms the primitive gut)
Fetal development: mesoderm gives rise to (2): smooth muscle and connective tissue
Fetal development: ectoderm forms the (2): stomodeum (oral cavity) and proctodeum
Cells that form an extensive network of stellate cells in muscle layers of GI tract; associated with smooth muscle cells & enteric neurons = interstitial cells of Cajal
Substance that binds to M3-type muscarinic receptors in parietal cells to stimulate H+ secretion = Acetylcholine
3 substances that stimulate H+ secretion during feeding Acetylcholine, gastrin, histamine
Histamine MOA for H+ secretion secreted by ECL & mast cells, binds to parietal cell H2 receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase & increase cAMP, which activates protein kinase A to stimulate H+ secretion
Gastrin is a peptide hormone of (#) or (#) amino acids; somatostatin is a peptide of (#) or (#) amino acids. Gastrin has 17 or 34. Somatostatin has 14 or 28
3 phases of acid secretion during feeding cephalic phase; gastric phase; intestinal phase
Protective MOA in stomach's mucous layer for H pylori Urease converts urea to CO2 and ammonia (latter of which buffers luminal acid & protect H pylori)
How you get B12 Dietary B12 binds with haptocorrin, which pancreatic proteases digest in duodenum; in low-acid small intestine, intrinsic factor binds with B12, and complex is taken up by ileum epithelial cells
Zollinger Ellison syndrome MOA Recurrent PUD; Gastrinoma increases gastrin production; Gastric acid hypersecretion
The main vagal mediator that stimulates GI/gastric contraction is: Acetylcholine
2 neuronal mediators that inhibit GI/gastric contraction: VIP and nitric oxide
Secretin (stimulated by acid) has what effect on gastric contraction? inhibits antral contraction and stimulates pyloric sphincter contraction to slow gastric emptying
CCK (stimulated by fat) has what effect on gastric emptying? acts on vagal nerve receptors to decrease emptying
The invaginations between small intestinal villi are called: crypts of Lieberkuhn
Life span of enterocytes, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells (on villi): 4-6 days
Life span of Paneth cells: 60 days
2 most common phyla of commensal bacteria in intestine Bacteroides and Firmicutes
Neurotransmitter secretagogues in the small intestine (2) VIP and acetylcholine
Paracrine secretagogues in the small intestine (4) bradykinin, serotonin, histamine, prostaglandins
peptide associated with the migrating myoelectric complexes motilin (22 amino acids)
Created by: Abarnard
 

 



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