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World History AP

Chapters 16-23

Cape of Good Hope Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by portuguese in search of direct route to india.
Ferdinand Magellan Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated first circumnavigation of the globe; died during the voyage; allowed spain to claim philippines.
Seven Years War Fought both in continental europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in prussian seizures of land from austria,english seizures of colonies in india and north america.
Calcutta Headquarters of british east india company in bengal in indian subcontinent, became administrative center for all bengal.
World Economy established bye europeans by the 16th century,based on control of seas including atlantic and pacific,created international exchange of foods,diseases,and manufactured products.
Core nations nations that controlled international banking,commercial services and exported manufactured goods for raw materials
Mestizos people of mixed european and indian ancestry in mesoamerica and south america.
Treaty of Paris arranged in 1763 following seven years was, granted new france to england in exchange for return of french sugar island in caribbean
Dutch East India Company joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in asia.
Christopher Columbus successfully sailed to new world and returned in 1492. Initiated european discoveries in america.
British East India Company joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in india, acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed
Lepanto naval battle between the spanish and the ottoman empire resulting in a spanish victory in 1571.
Francisco Pizarro led conquest of inca empire of peru beginning in 1535.
Boers dutch settlers in cape colony in southern africa
New France french colonies in north america; extended frim st.lawrence river along great lake and down mississippi river valley system
Mercantilism economic theory that stressed government promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to imporve tax revenues
Vasco de Balboa First spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of mesoamerica in 1509
Galileo Published Copernicus findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
John Harvey English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
Treaty of Westphalia Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion either Protestant or Catholic.
Edict of Nantes Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598 factions.
Deism Concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution
Copernicus Polish monk and astronomer,disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
Glorious Revolution English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king.
Parliamentary Monarchy Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Rene Descartes Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
Louis XIV French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy.
Anglican church Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head.
Francis I King of France in the 16th century;imposed new controls on Catholic church
English Civil War Conflict from 1640 to 1660 ,featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy
proletariat Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries.
Northern Renaissance Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe
Johannes Gutenberg Introduced movable type to western Europe greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
Thirty Years War War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies and the emperor and his ally
Machiavelli, Niccolo Author of The Prince emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power
Jesuits A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North American, and Asia.
Catholic Reformation Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
Mary Wollstonecraft Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women
John Locke English philosopher during 17th century argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason
Humanism Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor
Enlightenment Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century, featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society
European-style family Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
Adam Smith Established liberal economics,argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces.
Jean Calvin French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination
witchcraft persecution Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth
Isaac Newton English scientist during the 17th century; author of Principia; drew the various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity.
Northern Renaissance Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
Galileo Published CopernicusÕ findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
Martin Luther German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of church.
Absolute monarchy Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states,featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies.
Francis I King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor.
Third Rome Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuity of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Romanov dynasty Dynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917.
Old Believers Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Catherine the Great German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Pedro Alvares Cabral Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
Time of Troubles Followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613
Pugachev rebellion During 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter.
Peter I Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Alexis Romanov Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church.
partition of Poland Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.
Ivan III Also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or CaesarÑequivalent of emperor.
Ivan IV Also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture
Cossacks Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.
Romanov dynasty Dynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917
Peter I Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models
Hispaniola First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
Charles III Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold
Moctezuma II Last independent Aztec emperor; killed during Hernan Cortez conquest of Tenochtitlan
Consulado Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return
New Spain Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs
Bartolome de Las Casas Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.
Minas Gerais
Tupac Amaru Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution
viceroyalties Two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representatives of the king.
audiencia Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates.
sociedad de castas American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mixed races in middle
Marquis of Pombal Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy
Rio de Janeiro Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763.
Pedro de Valdivia Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.
Columbian exchange Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to New World; animals, plants, and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred.
capitaincies Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony.
Caribbean First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here
Huancavelica Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potos’
letrados University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.
Sor Juana Ines de la cruz Author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Paulistas Backwoodsmen from San Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during 17th century
haciendas Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Comunero Revolt One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.
Ferdinand of Aragon Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Galleons Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
peninsulares People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.
Recopilaci—n Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
encomendero The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church.
Hernan Cortes Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan
Creoles Whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath peninsulares
amigos del pa’s Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform.
Council of the Indies Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World
Potos’Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver
Treaty of Tordesillas= Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain
War of the Spanish Succession Succession Resulted from Bourbon familyÕs succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French.
Mexico City Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Encomienda Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
Isabella of Castile Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World
Great trek Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Suriname Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerrilla resistance
Nzinga Mvemba King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom
El Mina Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa
Dahomey Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves
Factories European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce
Swazi New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane.
Royal African Company Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia
saltwater slaves Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black
asantehene Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Creole slaves American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation
Luo Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro
Indies piece Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave
candomble African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people
vodun African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti
Palmares Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan
Osei Tutu Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms.
triangular trade Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe
Fulani Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto
Asante Empire Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650
Middle Passage Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16thÐ18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture
Lesotho Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government
William Wilberforce British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807
obeah African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands
Luanda Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola
Mehmed II Ottoman sultann responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
Red Heads Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear.
Nur Jahan Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal empire during later years of Jahangiros reign.
Humayan Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter
AurangzebSon and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707 Son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707
Akbar Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes
Marattas Western India peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in 18th century
Mughal Empire Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century
Safavid dynasty Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shioism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722
imams rulers who could trace descent from the successors of Ali.
Babur Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530
Janissaries Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century
mullahs Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shintoism
Sikhs Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge differences between Hindu and Muslim, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feeling.
Chaldiran Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire
Isfahan Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shahs plan; example of Safavid architecture
Abbas the Great Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology
Ottoman Empire Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeeded Seljuk Turks following retreat of Mongols
Nadir Khan Afshar Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom
Sail al-Din Early 14th-century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty
Din-i-Ilahi Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but failed
vizier Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century often more powerful than sultan
Ottomans Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world
Mumtaz Mahal Wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal
Mindanao Southern island of Philippines; a Muslim kingdom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest
Deshima Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter
Hideyoshi, Toyotomi General under Nobunaga; succeeded as leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constructed a series of alliances that made him military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598
School of National Learning New ideology that laid emphasis on JapanÕs unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confucianism; typical of Japan in 18th century
Robert di Nobili Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites first; strategy later widely adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed
Goa Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on western India coast; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network
Chongzhen Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen capture of the Forbidden City at Beijing
Nobunaga Japanese daimyo, first to make extensive use of firearms
Ormuz Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at southern end of Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network
Edo Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa Shogunate
Luzon Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort
Malacca Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands
Tokugawa Ieyasu Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
caravels slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia
Tokugawa Shogunate Founded 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyasu was made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan
Batavia Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java
Dutch Studies Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 17th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan
Asian sea trading network Prior to intervention of Europeans, consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; and China based on paper, porcelain, and silks.
Francis xavier Spanish Jesuit missionary; worked in India in 1540s among the outcaste and lower caste groups; made little headway among elites.
Batavia Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java.
Macao One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.
Canton One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty
Ricci, Matteo skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity.
Deshima Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s
revisionism Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions
Freud, Sigmund Viennese physician,developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses
Albert Einstein Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity.
socialism Political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man
Benjamin Disraeli Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics
nationalism Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe.urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin
Industrial Revolution Series of changes in economy between 1740 and 20th century,increase in agricultural productivity,and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production.
Louis XVI Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution (1792).
trasformismo Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo
Charles Darwin Biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival
Triple Entente Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
feminist movements Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
radical Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes
French Revolution Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
mass leisure culture An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
social question Issues relating to repressed classes in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870
liberal Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments
American Revolution Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America.
Balkan nationalism Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I
American Civil War Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
age of revolution Period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Greek Revolution Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans
proto-industrialization Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe
Reform Bill of 1832
Created by: padackles