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Ancient Rome

TermDefinition
Location Rome was located by the Mediterranean Sea and Tiber River, which made trade easy. It was surrounded by Africa, Asia, and Europe. It was located in the Italian Peninsula, and was far enough inland that pirates couldn't invade.
Climate Italy had a mild and sunny climate, which made it good for growing crops.
Physical Features Italy has the Tiber River and mountains that can be passed by traders. It has fertile farmland, and steep hills and mountains that protected Romans from invasions.
How the Greeks influenced Rome: Grapes and olives/food, alphabet, gods and goddesses, buildings/architecture, and literature/arts.
How the Etruscans influenced Rome: Building with brick/other building materials, roof homes with tiles, religious rituals, fashion, military, and city planning.
How the Roman and Greek fighting styles were different: The Greeks fought with long spears, and fought in big groups with many rows. It limited their ability to attack from all sides. The Romans had legions, or groups of a few people, and were able to attack from all sides and move quickly.
Citizens vs. Allies The citizens could vote and could serve in the Roman government. Allies had their own government, and they both had to pay taxes, supply soldiers for army, and could serve in military.
Roman soldier The Roman soldier had a helmet, or galea, a shield, armor, a javelin, or pilum, sandals, or caligae, and a sword, or gladius.
Plebeians They were poor, and they were part of the working class, which meant that they were artisans, shopkeepers, and farmers. They had the right to vote, but weren't allowed in government positions. They weren't allowed to marry patricians.
Patricians They were wealthy, and they were noblemen or landowners. They had the right to vote, could serve in the army, and could hold public office.
Plebeian Strike The plebeians protested unfair treatment by striking. The patricians were worried that the Republic might fall, so they allow plebeians in the government.
Senate They were controlled by very wealthy noblemen patricians, and was the oldest, most powerful branch. They controlled how Rome's money was spent for education, defense, and improvements, and how they behaved towards neighbors.
Assembly Made up of plebeians, and protected rights of plebeians. They made patricians write laws on tablets called Twelve Tables in Forum. Made up of representatives elected by plebeians. Made to end revolt. 2nd branch.
Consuls 2 consuls served for one year. They were elected by the assembly but did what senate said. Military leaders. Highest judges. Lots of power. Could order arrests, propose new laws, and forbid actions of other consuls.
Legislative bodies had power to veto each other. Veto is Latin for "I forbid."
During wartime the Republic is lead by a dictator.
Cincinnatus was a strong leader, and believed in civil duty, or the responsibility to serve or help one's country. A dictator.
What was the goal of Rome's legal system? "Rule of Law" to ensure the laws were applied to ALL citizens EQUALLY.
What legal tools did the Roman Republic use to uphold the "Rule of Law?" 1) The Twelve Tables - 1st code of law. 2) Law of Nations = laws for all conquered non-citizens. 3) courts
Created by: lniccolini