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Infection Control Review

QuestionAnswer
What does mode of transmission mean? An organisms needs transportation to a new host
Describe the Direct contact modes of transmission person to person
Describe the indirect contact modes of transmission person to object to person
Describe the droplet modes of transmission coughs, sneezes
Describe the vehicle route modes of transmission via water, food, blood, bodyfluids
Describe the airborne modes of transmission dust evaporated droplets, hair and skin particles, ventilation systems
Describe the vector modes of transmission bird, animal or insect --- i.e. West Nile Virus
Describe the normal flora microorganism Normally present in the body Do not cause disease
Describe bacteria microorganism Single celled, nonpathogenic, multiply by cell division, Some cause infection
Describe viruses Small, cannot live on their own, need host cell to multiply
Describe Fungi Single-celled, use spores to reproduce
Describe Protozoa Single celled, found mostly in contaminated water and sewage systems
How should you treat someone with HIV/AIDS? Respect, warmth, empathy, acceptance and dignity
What are standard precautions? Protection from cross-contamination i.e. PPE (personal/ proper protective equipment)
What are the contraindications for MMR? (contraindication) (medicine) A reason that makes it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug or employ a particular procedure or treatment.
What are the contraindications for MMR? Pregnancy
What are the contraindications for MMR? Immunoglobulin any of a class of proteins present in the serum and cells of the immune system that function as antibodies.
What are the contraindications for MMR? Sensitivity to eggs/neomycin - an antibiotic related to streptomycin, active against a wide variety of bacterial infections.
What is a pathogen? A disease causing microorganism
What is chemical disinfection used for? Heat sensitive equipment
What is medical asepsis? Killing germs after they leave the body
What is surgical asepsis? An extension of medical asepsis aka sterilization destroys all pathogens before they enter the body
What is the most effective method of preventing the spread of infectious organisms? Hand washing
Why do vaccines work? The body responds in the same manner to an antigen whether it is exposed to it naturally or via vaccine
What does the chain of infection mean? The links in the chain of infection
How can AIDs be transmitted? Unprotected sexual intercourse, shared needles or other drug equipment, tattooing, skin piercing and acupuncture with contaminated equipment, injury from a needle or sharp instrument contaminated by blood
What is the “universal disinfectant”? Bleach
What is postexposure prophylaxis? PEP Treatment after exposure to a pathogen
What is postexposure prophylaxis? Post-exposure prophylaxis - Post-exposure prophylaxis is any preventive medical treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen, in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease
A device using steam for sterilization autoclave
a pathogen or any other substance that induces an antibody response antigen
a protein specific to a certain antigen that weakens or destroys pathogens antibody
a hospital-related infection; one that is not present or incubating when a patient is admitted to a hospital or a healthcare facility nosocomial infection
an infection that has spread to more than one region of the body systemic infection
any instrument with a sharp edge or point, such as a scalpel, scissors, or a needle sharp
applied to the skin or affected area topical
bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow anaerobic bacteria
bacteria that require oxygen to grow aerobic bacteria
causing abnormalities in the fetus teratogenic
a cleansing agent applied to living tissue to destroy pathogens antiseptic
one in which the symptoms disappear and recur, while the disease-causing agent remains in the body latent infection
completely free of pathogens sterile
a substance that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life in an inanimate environment sterilant
a chemical substance that destroys or eliminates specific species of infectious microorganisms. It is not usually effective against bacterial spores disinfectant
a disease process that results from the entry and spread of a microorganism infection
a disease that is spread from person to person contagious disease
an individual's ability to fight off disease immunity
an infection in which signs and symptoms are present active infection
infection of the middle ear otitis media
an infection that is time limited acute infection
isolating or separating a client, client-care unit, or facility quarantine
killing microorganisms bactericidal
an infection that is confined to a specific region of the body local infection
removal of gross contaminants and some microorganisms from instruments, skin, and so on; the lowest level of medical hygiene sanitization
methods to avoid contamination of sterile materials sterile technique
a microorganism that causes disease pathogen
a more thorough removal of contaminants than sanitization but less thorough than sterilization disinfection
not causing disease nonpathogenic
an infection that does not ordinarily cause disease but does so under certain circumstances, for example, in compromised immune systems; so called because it takes advantage of an "opportunity" opportunistic infection
an organism so small that it can only be seen under a microscope microorganism
a period in which a chronic infection shows no symptoms remission
a period in which a chronic infection shows symptoms exacerbation
one that is persistent over a long period of time, perhaps life chronic infection
a substance that significantly reduces the bacterial population in an inanimate environment but does not destroy all bacteria or other microorganisms sanitizer
reducing or inhibiting the number of microorganisms bacteriostatic
the re-emergence of an initial infection after it appears to have subsided but has not been cured relapse
a distinct episode of an infection after recovery from the initial infection; may involve the same pathogens or different ones recurrent infection
a serum that contains antibodies that can help protect an exposed person from contracting the disease immunoglobulin
a state in which pathogens are absent or reduced. There are two principal types of asepsis: medical and surgical asepsis
the process of destroying all microorganisms, including bacterial endospores and viruses. This is the highest level of cleanliness sterilization
the power of a microbe to produce a disease in a particular host virulence
the presence of pathogens on an object contamination
treatment after exposure to a pathogen PEP
without clinical signs of symptoms asymptomatic
Created by: brigitte1112
 

 



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