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The Age of Absolutism (1600s-1700s) The period in European history when nations were governed (ruled) by absolute monarchs.
Absolute monarch Kings who had total control over the nations that they ruled. Centralized political control, which means that they did not share power with anyone else. Believed that their power was unlimited. They made laws without the consent of the people.
Divine Right The idea that kings received their power to rule directly from God.
Peter the Great The absolute monarch of Russia. He also westernized Russia, which means that he imitated the customs and traditions of countries in Western Europe in order to strengthen his nation
Suleiman the Magnificent The absolute monarch of the Ottoman Empire.
Louis XIV He was the absolute monarch of France.
Philip II He was the absolute monarch of Spain
Scientific Revolution (1500s-1600s) A sudden and dramatic change in how people viewed the world. Reason (logic) was used to explain how the world worked. People no longer turned only to the Bible and the Catholic Church for answers.
Copernicus Astronomer who developed the Heliocentric Theory
Heliocentric Theory The idea that the planets revolve around the sun.
Galileo Galilei Astronomer who proved that Copernicus was correct. He was put on trial by the Catholic Church because his ideas contradicted (went against) its teaching
Sir Isaac Newton Mathematician and astronomer who developed calculus and the theory of gravity.
Johannes Kepler Astronomer who helped discover how planets move
Descartes Mathematician, scientist, and philosopher.
Key effects (results) of the Scientific Revolution 1) It resulted in the spread of new ideas throughout Europe. 2) It challenged the traditional authority (power) of the Catholic Church since European scientists proved that many Church teachings were incorrect. 3) Led to the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment (1700s) The period in European history when reason (logic) was used to understand and improve society. Often called “The Age of Reason".
Key ideas of the Enlightenment 1) Believed that society could be improved by using reason (logic) and natural law (universal rules that are always true). 2) Governments receive their authority (power) from the people (NOT from God). 3)Believed in democracy
John Locke He believed that all people have natural rights (the right to life, liberty, and property). He also said that people have the right to overthrow governments that fail to protect these rights.
Baron de Montesquieu In order to prevent kings from being too strong, he believed that power in government should be divided into three branches (executive, legislative, judicial) so that there is a separation of powers and a system of checks and balances.
Voltaire He believed that everyone is entitled to freedom of speech and freedom of religion
Rousseau He believed that society is a social contract (an agreement in which all people agree to work for the common good of society).
Key effects (results) of the Enlightenment: 1) Helped cause political revolutions in France, Latin America, and the United States . 2) Enlightened Despots- These were European kings and queens who believed in Enlightenment ideas and ruled using Enlightenment principles (ideas).
Political means government.
Political revolution An event in which the people of a country overthrow an existing government and create a new government.
The English Revolution/Glorious Revolution (1689) The people of England successfully limited the power of their monarchs (kings). Took place because people in England believed that the absolute monarchs of England were unfair and had too much power
Key effects (results) of the English Revolution/Glorious Revolution: England’s government became a limited (or constitutional) monarchy- This is a form of government in which the power of monarchs (kings) is limited (decreased) by written laws.
Laws that each limited the power of the English king a) The Magna Carta b) The Petition of Right c) The English Bill of Rights d) Habeas Corpus
The French Revolution (1789-1815) The people of France overthrew their king (Louis XVI) and fought for more rights in government.
Key causes of (reasons for) the French Revolution: 1) The Third Estate was angry that they had very few rights and paid the highest taxes 2) Believed kings abuse power and denied the rights of the people. 3) The Enlightenment 4) Debt
Declaration of the Rights of Man This was a document written during the French Revolution that gave equal rights to the men of France and created a fair system of taxation
Reign of Terror This was an event where the leaders of the French Revolution executed thousands of people that they believed were loyal to the king. The Jacobins were the radical (extreme) group leading this event and Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobins.
Key effects (results) of the French Revolution: 1) King Louis XVI of France was executed by Robespierre and the Jacobins. 2) The middle class of France gained more power and rights
Napoleon Bonaparte Ruler who came to power at the end of the French Revolution. He expanded (enlarged) French territory by conquering neighboring lands in Europe. By doing so, he made French people feel nationalism (pride in their country).
Fall of Napoleon Defeated in 1812 because he made a big error (mistake): He invaded Russia during the winter and the freezing climate (weather) of Russia killed thousands of his soldiers.
The Latin American Revolutions (1800-1830) The colonies in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean) fought to gain independence (self-government) from Spain, Portugal, and France.
Key causes of (reasons for) the Latin American Revolutions 1) Colonial gov. were controlled by Peninsulares who treated the people of Latin America poorly. Creoles Mestizos , Native Americans, and African slaves wanted more rights 2) Enlightnment Ideas 3. American and French Revolutions
Latin America Independence Leaders 1) Simon Bolivar 2) Jose de San Martin 3) Miguel Hidalgo 4) Toussaint L’Ouverture All of these men are considered nationalists since they loved their nations and wanted to free them from European control.
The Industrial Revolution (1700s-1800s) The change from producing goods by hand to producing goods with machines in factories. started in Great Britain (England) because it had many natural resources (i.e.- coal, iron, tin, lead, waterways) that are necessary to produce and transport goods.
Key effects (results) of the Industrial Revolution 1) Industrialization- Machines were used to produce goods in factories. 2) Urbanization- The growth of cities. 3) Bad working conditions 4) Formation of Labor Union 5) Legislation-Governments eventually passed laws to set minimum wage-end child labor
Laissez Faire Capitalism (Market Economy 1) Businesses and factories should be owned by individuals (NOT the government) 2) Business decisions should be made by Individuals (without government interference. 3) Prices should be set by individuals (Not the government) based on supply and demand
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Wrote a book called the “Communist Manifesto”
Communist Manifesto Written by Marx and Engels. a) The Proletariat should rise up, overthrow the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution, and eliminate laissez faire capitalism. b) The Proletariat will then create a new kind of society where work and wealth was shared equally
Nationalism A feeling of love, loyalty, and devotion to one’s country develops in areas where people share a common language, culture, and history.
Unification of Italy Italy successfully combined its separate states to form one united nation in 1870. This was achieved due to the efforts of 3 devoted nationalists: 1) Giuseppe Garibaldi 2) Giuseppe Mazzini 3) Count Camillo di Cavour
Unification of Germany Germany successfully combined its separate states to form one united nation in 1871
Otto von Bismarck He used a “blood and iron” policy (3 wars) to unify German lands
Potato Famine 1) 1845-1850- About 1 million Irish people died of famine (starvation) when the potato crop failed to grow. 2) Over 1 million Irish people migrated (moved) to the United States to escape the famine and find more opportunities.
Nationalism in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire Both large empires that ruled over many diverse (different) ethnic groups. The ethnic minorities of wanted independence. Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were eventually broken up due to nationalist movements.
Nationalism in Ireland 1801-Great Britain (England) took over Ireland. 1) Ireland wanted independence (self-government). 2) 1921- Southern Ireland (mostly Catholic) gained independence from Great Britain. Northern Ireland (mostly Protestant) remained part of Great Britain
Imperialism AKA colonization . When a strong country conquers and takes over a weaker country. Colonies are created. During the 19th century (1800s), many European nations (also called Western nations) took over lands throughout Africa and Asia
Causes of (reasons for) imperialism- 1) Europeans wanted raw materials/natural resources (like coal, tin, iron) in order to make goods in their factories. 2) “White Man’s Burden”- ” 3) Social Darwinism-
White Man’s Burden Racist poem that encouraged Europeans to civilize (help improve) the people that they took over by teaching them European customs and religious beliefs ( Christianity). The poem referred to the people of Asia and Africa as “half devil” and “half child"
Social Darwinism The idea that it was natural for strong countries (like the European nations) to take over weaker countries (like nations in Africa and Asia)
Imperialism in Asia and Africa (1800s-1914) Effects (results) of imperialism- The Europeans generally had a very negative impact on the regions that they colonized . The people of Africa and Asia didn't like being ruled by European nations. As a result, they fought for self-determination
Scramble for Africa Over 90% of Africa was taken over by European countries that scrambled (raced) to take over the continent
Imperialism in China After the British began smuggling opium (an addictive drug) into China, the Chinese fought back in the famous Opium Wars. After being defeated, China was carved up into spheres of influence (areas where trade was controlled by different European nations)
Imperialism in India Taken over by Great Britain (England) and ruled for almost 200 years.
Sepoy Mutiny Rebellion in which India tried (but failed) to gain independence from Great Britain (England)
Boxer Rebellion Rebellion in which China tried (but failed) to gain independence from the various European (Western) nations that controlled them
Commodore Matthew Perry 1854- United States sailed into Japan in order to open up the country to trade. We wanted to do business with Japan.
Meiji Restoration (1868-1912 1) Modernization- Japan industrialized (built factories, machines, roads, communications). 2) Westernization- Japan adopted the customs and techniques of Western countries.Japan changed its government, military, education system.
Japanese Imperialism 1) Now that Japan had factories, it needed natural resources/raw materials (like coal, tin, iron, and lead) to make products. 2) Since Japan had very few natural resources of its own, Japan took over Korea and part of China to gain these resources.
World War I (1914-1918) A global military conflict fought between 1914-1918.
Underlying Causes of (reasons for) World War I You can remember the causes by just thinking of the word (M.A.I.N.):Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Militarism Countries in Europe (especially Germany and Britain) built up their armies and their supply of weapons in the late 1800s
Alliances Countries in Europe divided themselves into two military alliances (the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente) in order to prepare for war. This alliance system increased tension in Europe
Imperialism - WWI Countries in Europe competed with each other to take over lands in Africa, Asia, and the Balkans (Southeastern Europe). This competition increased tension
Nationalism - WWI Ethnic groups in the Balkans (Southeastern Europe) wanted to gain independence (self-government) from Austria-Hungary and they were willing to fight for it.
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty that ended World War I 1) Germany was forced to accept blame for causing World War I. 2) Germany was forced to pay 30 billion dollars in war reparations 3) Germany must reduced their military 4) Germany - forced to give up colonies
Immediate Cause of WWI Archduke Ferdinand (the heir to the throne of AustriaHungary) was assassinated by Slavic nationalists in the Balkans
Armenian Massacre During World War I, the Turks of the Ottoman Empire attempted to kill all of the Armenians that lived in their territory. NOTE: This event is an example of genocide
Key effects (results) of World War I: In order to provide the people of Eastern Europe with self-determination (the right of ethnic groups to create their own governments), Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were broken apart and much of the land was used to create new nations in Eastern
The Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was an event where the people of Russia overthrew their Czar (king) and created a new government
Causes of (reasons for) the Russian Revolution Like all political (government) revolutions, the Russian Revolution took place because the people of Russia were unhappy with their government. Russia suffered many casualties (injuries and death)in World War I . Food shortages
Czar Nicholas II He was the ruler of Russia at the time. People thought that he abused his power by denying (taking away) the rights of the people.
Bolsheviks 1) Radical (extreme) group that lead the Russian Revolution. 2) Vladimir Lenin - leader. 3) Promised “Peace, Land, and Bread.” This slogan meant that they would take Russia out of WWI, give land to peasants, and feed everyone
Effects (results) of the Russian/Bolshevik Revolution: 1) Czar Nicholas II was executed. 2) Lenin and the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia. 3) Russia became a Communist nation.
Kemal Ataturk First president of Turkey. Considered a nationalist because he made many changes in order to strengthen Turkey. Westernization-Imitated the customs and traditions of European countries Democracy - Established democracy in Turkey
Zionism 1) The nationalist movement of Jews. 2) Goal of Zionists after World War I was to create an official nation for Jews in the Holy Land (a region of the Middle East that includes the sacred city of Jerusalem).
Indian Nationalism By the time World War I ended in 1919, India had been a colony of Great Britain (England) for almost 200 years. After World War I, India began to increase its demands for independence (self-government).
Mohandas Gandhi He is the famous nationalist leader of India who fought for independence from Britain using only non-violent methods (also called civil disobedience or passive resistance).
Salt March Famous event where Gandhi protested British taxes on salt by leading a peaceful march to the sea to make his own salt.
Boycott Gandhi encouraged the people of India to boycott (stop buying) British products (like clothing) that were sold in India.
Totalitarian Dictatorships Government where one ruler has complete control over ALL aspects of life within a country. They control the political, social, and economic features of a nation.
Dictatorships after WWI 1) The Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. 2) Italy under Benito Mussolini. 3) Germany under Adolf Hitler.
Censorship They ended freedom of speech in their countries. The governments strictly controlled the media (i.e.- newspapers, radio, and television) of their nation.
One political party Only the political party of the dictators was allowed to exist. Stalin’s political party was called the Communists. Mussolini’s political party was called the Fascists. Hitler’s political party was called the Nazis.
Propaganda Messages that were meant to influence the way people thought.
Totalitarianism under Joseph Stalin The totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union (Russia).
Command (or Communist) economy An economic system where the government (instead of individuals) owns businesses, makes business decisions, and sets prices.
Five-Year Plans Stalin tried to modernize (update) the industry (factories) and agriculture (farms) of the Soviet Union by setting economic goals every five years.
Collectivization Stalin took over the individual farms that people owned and forced people to live on large government farms (called collective farms) that were owned by the government
World War II (1939-1945) The second major global conflict of the twentieth century. It was fought mainly in Europe and on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. Began when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. Three days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany
Japanese Aggression leading to WWII Japan took over Korea, Manchuria (northeastern China), and much of Southeast Asia in order to gain natural resources/raw materials (like coal and iron).
Rape of Nanking Brutal event in which the Japanese raped and killed Chinese civilians (non-soldiers) in the city of Nanking. It was a major human rights violation.
Italian Aggression leading to WWII Benito Mussolini of Italy invaded and took over Ethiopia (country in Africa).
German Aggression leading to WWII Adolf Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles 1)Built up the German military and drafted soldiers into the army. 2) Placed soldiers in the Rhineland (an area between Germany and France). 3) Took over Austria. 4) Took over Czechoslovakia
League of Nations - Role in WWII An international organization created after World War I in order to prevent war. It failed to stop Hitler, Mussolini, or Japan from being aggressive
Appeasement This is a policy where an aggressive nation is given what they want by other nations in order to avoid war. Munich Conference in Germany - Great Britain appeased Hitler by giving him control over Czechoslovakia. This led Hitler to demand even more land.
Invasion of Poland- This event started WWII. Poland was quickly defeated by Germany because Poland lacks natural boundaries (i.e.- it has very flat plains that were easy to conquer).
Pearl Harbor Japan launched a surprise attack against the United States. This event brought us into World War II.
Battle of Stalingrad Hitler failed to conquer Russia (the Soviet Union) because of the harsh climate (severe winter) and large size of the nation. The same was true of Napoleon Bonaparte 130 years earlier. Geography has always been Russia’s best defense.
D-Day Invasion This was the beginning of the final Allied push against Germany. It resulted in the eventual defeat of Germany.
Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki This was the final event of World War II. The U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. Japan surrendered soon after.
The Holocaust 1) This was the event during World War II in which Hitler and the Nazis tried to kill all Jews in Europe. 6 million Jews and 6 million non-Jews were killed during this event. Genocide.
Formation of the United Nations 1) The United Nations is the organization that was created after World War II in order to solve international problems (like poverty and disease) and prevent future wars. 2) 191 nations (almost the entire world) currently belong to the United Nations.
Declaration of Human Rights This was a document created by the United Nations that lists the rights that ALL people should have within their nations. This includes the right to freedom of speech, the right to life, and the right to participate in government.
Nuremberg Trials 1) This is the court case where the surviving Nazis who helped Hitler carry out the Holocaust were put on trial. 2) 19 Nazi leaders were executed or sentenced to imprisonment as a result of “crimes against humanity”
The Cold War (1945-1991) A 50 year struggle between the United States (a democratic nation) and the Soviet Union (a communist nation) after World War II.
Satellites Nations After World War II, the Soviet Union took over the small nations of Eastern Europe
“Iron Curtain” This was a term used by Winston Churchill to describe the imaginary line dividing the democratic countries of Western Europe from the communist countries of Eastern Europe
Containment This was the policy used by the United States in which it attempted to stop the spread of communism
Truman Doctrine The United States gave $400 million in economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey to help them defeat communist groups within their countries.
Marshall Plan The United States gave $13 billion to the countries of Western Europe to help them rebuild after World War II.
Germany Post WWII After World War II, Germany was divided into 2 nations. West Germany became a democratic nation. East Germany became a communist nation controlled by the Soviet Union
Berlin Wall Concrete wall built by the Communists around the city of West Berlin to prevent people in East Germany from fleeing to West Germany.
Berlin Airlift Event in which the United States, Britain, and France flew in supplies to the people of West Berlin after Stalin set up a blockade.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) This was a military alliance between the United States, Canada, and the democratic nations of Western Europe. The nations of this alliance agreed than an attack on one nation in the alliance was considered to be an attack on all of the nations
Warsaw Pact This was a military alliance between the Soviet Union and the other Communist nations of Eastern Europe.
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 When Hungary (a communist satellite controlled by the Soviet Union) tried to break away from Soviet control, the Soviet Union sent in the army and repressed (ended) the rebellion
Arms Race The United States and Soviet Union competed to build up the largest supply of nuclear weapons.
Cuban Missile Crisis a) United States discovered that the Soviet Union was building missile bases in Cuba (a new Communist nation) and pointing nuclear missiles at the United States. b) The crisis ended when the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles.
Korea and Vietnam One side of each country became communist and the other side became democratic. The Korean War and the Vietnam War were the result of this situation. Today, North Korea is still communist and South Korea is still democratic. Vietnam is all communist.
European Union (E.U.) This is an organization that now includes 27 countries in Europe. They have decreased tariffs (taxes) and now use a single form of currency (money) called “The Euro.”
North American Free Trade Agreement (N.A.F.T.A.) This is an organization that includes the United States, Canada, and Mexico. By decreasing tariffs (taxes), this organization has increased trade between the 3 main countries of North America.
interdependence Countries working together and relying on each other)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (O.P.E.C.) This is an organization that was created by the main oil-producing countries of the world. 2) Together, the member countries determine the price of oil as well as production levels (i.e.- the amount of oil available to other countries)
Communism in China (1949-Present) In 1949, after 22 years of civil war (war within China), China became the second country in the world (after the Soviet Union) to adopt communism.
Mao Zedong The first Communist dictator of China. He gained the support of peasants because he promised to provide them with their own land once the Communists were brought to power.
Great Leap Forward This was the attempt by Mao to modernize (update) the industrial (factory) and agricultural (farm) production of China. Peasants in China were forced to move onto large government farms.
Cultural Revolution This was a period in China where Mao used violent young Communist soldiers (known as Red Guards) to eliminate all of the opposition (enemies) that he had within China
Deng Xiaoping He was the ruler in China after Mao Zedong. 2) Changed the economy of China from a command/communist economy to a market/capitalist/free enterprise economy (in which individuals own businesses). This is the system that is largely used in China today
Tiananmen Square Protests/Massacre (1989) a) Protests where the Chinese peacefully demanded democratic reforms (changes)- They wanted more rights and a say in government. b) Deng Xiaoping called in the army to repress (end) the protests. Hundreds of Chinese protesters were killed or arrested
Current issues in China 1) China controls the Buddhist region of Tibet. The people of Tibet want independence 2) Human rights violations (freedom of speech and the right to vote). 3) The government of China only allows each family to have one child.
Decolonization the period after World War II in which the nations of Africa and Asia finally gained independence (self-government) from the European (Western) nations that controlled them
Decolonization in India (1948) After World War II, India gained independence from England. In order to prevent conflict (war) between Hindus and Muslims, the region that was controlled by Great Britain was divided into two separate countries: 1) India- Hindu 2) Pakistan - Muslim
India after independence: Democratic government. Nonalignment (or neutrality) during the Cold War Caste System- there continues to be discrimination in rural (farming) areas since tradition remains strong there. Discrimination against untouchables is especially severe
Decolonization in Africa (1945-1980) A) The many nations of Africa finally gained independence from the European (or Western) nations that controlled them. B) Independence was achieved largely due to the efforts of nationalist leaders who led movements to gain self-government.
Jomo Kenyatta Gained independence for Kenya.
Kwame Nkrumah- Gained independence for Ghana.
South Africa after independence After independence, white Europeans still controlled the government of South Africa. They established the racist system known as apartheid
Apartheid The system of racial segregation that was used in South Africa from 1948 until 1990. Black South Africans were required to use separate bathrooms, attend separate schools, carry identification passbooks, and even go to separate beaches
Nelson Mandela a) South African nationalist leader who fought against Apartheid. b) He was imprisoned for 27 years by the white South African government. c) Became the first black president of South Africa after apartheid officially came to an end in 1990
Rwanda after independence 1) During the 1990s, there was serious ethnic conflict between two groups in Rwanda: the Hutus and the Tutsis. The Hutus slaughtered 800,000 Tutsis in only a few months. Genocide
Decolonization in Southeast Asia Between 1953 and 1954, Cambodia and Vietnam both gained independence (self-government) from France.
Ho Chi Minh Nationalist leader who led an 8-year war against France to gain independence for Vietnam.
Vietnam after independence: 1) Vietnam was divided into 2 countries: communist North Vietnam and democratic South Vietnam 2) After the Vietnam War, all of Vietnam was reunited to form one communist nation. Vietnam is still communist today.
Cambodia after independence After independence, Cambodia was ruled by a Communist group called the Khmer Rouge
Pol Pot a) He was the leader of the Khmer Rouge and ruler of Cambodia from 1976-1979. b) He was a brutal dictator who denied his people of human rights. c) Genocide- Pol Pot executed 2 million people within his nation (almost 20% of the population).
Nationalist leaders of Decolonization The Regents really wants you to know that these nationalist leaders were loyal and devoted to their people and their nation. These men include Mohandas Gandhi, Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela, and Ho Chi Minh.
Creation of Israel A) After World War II, part of the Holy Land was used to create the Jewish nation of Israel. B) Palestinians (Arab Muslims that live in the Holy Land) claim that they should have control over the region since they have lived there for hundreds of years
Islamic Fundamentalism The belief that governments should create societies that are based firmly on the rules of Islam. Two countries that have established such societies in recent decades are Iran and Afghanistan.
Iranian Revolution (1979) 1) This event brought Ayatollah Khomeini (an Islamic religious leader) to power. 2) Iran is still a theocracy- A country that is ruled by religious leaders
Taliban 1) The Taliban is an Islamic group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996-2001. 2) It created laws that were strictly based on Sharia (Islamic law).
The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union (1991) Between 1989 and 1991, the Cold War ended and Communism disappeared from Europe.
Mikhail Gorbachev He was the Soviet leader who helped bring an end to Communism in the Soviet Union
Perestroika This was a program in which Gorbachev changed the economy of the Soviet Union from a communist/command economy to a market/capitalist/free enterprise economy (where individuals own and operate businesses.
Glasnost a) This was a program in which Gorbachev allowed freedom of speech within the Soviet Union. b) It was a major step towards democracy in the Soviet Union.
Boris Yeltsin He was the first democratically elected president in the history of Russia
The Collapse of Communism in Germany (1989) Cold War Germany had been divided into two nations: W. Germany (a democratic country) and E. Germany (a communist country controlled by USSR). B) 1989- The Berlin Wall (the symbol of the Cold War) was finally torn down. C) 1990- W & E Germany reunite
Traditional Economy 1) Based on barter (trade without using money) and subsistence agriculture . 2) People have the same occupation (job) as their parents (usually related to farming). 3) Economic decisions are often influenced by tradition and religious beliefs.
Market Economy 1) Individuals own businesses and make economic decisions. 2) Individuals determine the price of goods based on supply and demand ie. capitalism, laissez-faire, and free enterprise
Acid Rain 1) Rain that contains chemicals due to pollution. 2) Demonstrates a need for stricter pollution laws throughout the world.
Deforestation Elimination of rainforests in Brazil (Amazon Basin), Costa Rica, and the Congo (in Central Africa).
Desertification 1) Change from arable (fertile) land to desert. Causes include deforestation and overgrazing. 2) Especially a concern in the Sahel (region south of the Sahara Desert in Africa).
Chernobyl 1) Nuclear disaster in Ukraine (a republic of the Soviet Union) in 1986. 2) Thousands exposed to radiation/cancer.
Greenhouse Effect 1) Trapping of warm air in the atmosphere (leads to global warming). 2) Caused by chemicals (like carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. 3) Could lead to flooding of coastal areas
Green Revolution 1) T the use of technology to increase the food supply (began in the 1960s). 2) Methods included improved irrigation, machinery, fertilizer, pesticides, and better seeds 3) Helped increase food production in areas of Asia, Latin America, and Africa
Nuclear Proliferation 1) The spread of nuclear technology to countries that do not currently posses them. 2) Although nuclear technology can be used to develop energy electricity), the same technology can also be used to create nuclear weapons. 3) North Korea and Iran
Created by: JImmyjet81