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Giattino- G REVIEW I


Historians Study written records of past events
Primary Source A firsthand record of a historical event created by an eyewitness who actually experienced the event (Examples- Diaries, photographs, artifacts, autobiographies).
Secondary Source A secondhand record of a historical event created by a person who did NOT actually experience the event (Examples- Textbooks, encyclopedias, biog
Neolithic Age (8000-3000 BC) “New Stone Age.” 1) discovered how to perform agriculture (farm) and domesticate (raise) animals for food and drink. 2) Humans switched from being nomads to being settled farmers who lived in permanent villages. 3) villages turned into civilizations
Civilization A complex and highly organized society that includes a government, social classes, job specialization, a food surplus, writing, and religious beliefs.
Ancient River Valley Civilizations - Egypt 1) Location: Northeastern Africa 2) Major River: Nile River 3) Characteristics and achievements: a) Developed hieroglyphics- Writing using picture symbols. b) Constructed pyramids- Massive structures used to bury Egyptian Pharaohs (kings)
Ancient River Civilizations - Mesopotamia 1) Location: Middle East 2) Tigris River and Euphrates River a) Developed cuneiform- Writing system using wedge-shaped symbols. b) Code of Hammurabi- Oldest written set of laws in the world that is known for its strict (harsh) punishments of crimes
Ancient Civilizations - Harrapan 1) Location: India 2) Major River: Indus River 3) Achievements: The urban (city) areas were organized and well- planned.
Ancient Civilizations - China 1) Major Rivers- Yellow (Huang He) River and Yangtze River 2) Early Chinese societies were very isolated from other civilizations because China is surrounded by natural boundaries (i.e.- mountains and deserts).
Common Features of Ancient Civilizations 1) They existed in river valley regions. 2) They were all polytheistic- People believed in many gods associated with nature 3) Similar economic systems - Barter, Subsistence farmers
Greece 1) Located on a peninsula with an irregular coastline in southeastern Europe. 2) a very mountainous geography, it was not one united civilization. Divided into many independent (separate) city-states. Each city-state had its own government and land.
Sparta A military society where men spent almost all of their lives training for warfare.
Athens Known for having the first democracy in the world. Had a direct democracy, which means that all citizens (adult males born in Athens) were able to vote. b) Athens focused heavily on culture and known for its philosophers (Socrates, Aristotle, Plato
Greek religion a) The people of ancient Greece were polytheistic (believed in many nature gods). b) The Olympic Games were held every 4 years in Greece to honor their god, Zeus
Alexander the Great Famous leader who conquered Greece, Egypt, Persia (Iran), and part of India. Hellenstic culture- Spread Greek (Hellenic) culture to all of the areas that he conquered.
Hellenistic The mixture of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture that took place in the areas that Alexander conquered.
Rome Located on the peninsula of Italy. Began as a small city-state but eventually created a large empire by conquering the regions that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea (i.e.- Western Europe, coast of Northern Africa, Greece, Anatolia, and Western Asia)
Twelve Tables of Rome- Written set of laws that stated the rules of behavior for members of Roman society. Although the laws favored the wealthy, these laws created stability (order) since they were displayed in public for all to see.
Pax Romana Means “Roman Peace.” This was the 200-year Golden Age of Rome in which there was extensive trade and great achievements in art, literature, math, and science
Maurya Dynasty Asoka- Famous ruler of India who wrote the laws of India on tall rock pillars (columns) that were displayed throughout India. Asoka converted to Buddhism during his reign and is known for his kind treatment of people and animals.
Gupta Dynasty Considered the Golden Age of India since there were many achievements in art, literature, math, and science. Some of the achievements include the invention of zero in mathematics, the development of Sanskrit writing, and beautiful Buddhist paintings.
Caste System The social hierarchy of India in which people were born into a social class (called a caste) and remained in that class for the remainder of their lives. The lowest group included people who were known as Untouchables
Qin Dynasty Lasted only 15 years. Based their government on the philosophy of Legalism- Believes that humans are evil and that harsh punishments are needed to keep order in society.
Han Dynasty Lasted 400 years. Grew wealthy through trade because of the system of roads that was developed throughout the region. Civil Service System- System in which government positions were given only to skilled people who passed difficult exams.
Silk Road Was a long trade route that extended about 4,000 miles from China in the East to the Mediterranean Sea in the West. It connected the different classical civilizations (and later civilizations as well).
Cultural Diffusion The exchange of goods and ideas between societies. Led the exchange of many products (like Silk) and religious ideas (like Buddhism) between civilizations.
Monotheism The belief in only one God, The 3 main religions are Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
Ten Commandments Code of behavior for Jews and Christians (i.e.- Do not kill, do not steal, do not worship false gods, etc
Five Pillars Code of behavior for Muslims (i.e.- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca, pray five times daily, etc.)
Hinduism - Reincarnation The idea that after humans die, their souls are reborn into another body. The belief that humans go through many rounds of reincarnation (death and rebirth).
Karma Refer to all of the good/bad deeds during a lifetime. Those who do good deeds develop good karma and are reborn at a higher level in the next life. Those who do bad deeds develop bad karma and are reborn at a lower level in the next life.
Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama. very similar to Hinduism. Both religions believe in Reincarnation and Karma. Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths The idea that all of life is suffering and that suffering is caused by our selfish desires
Legalism Philosophy based on the idea that humans are evil and that harsh punishments are needed in order to prevent crime and keep order in society
Confucianism Major philosophy of China. The Five Relationships- The idea that every single person has specific roles and obligations that must be followed in order to keep order and stability (calmness) in society. Filial Piety- honor and respect elders
Byzantine Empire (c. 500-1453 AD) The eastern portion of the Roman Empire. The people of the Byzantine Empire were mainly Greek in language and culture
Constantinople The capital city of the Byzantine Empire. It was a great location for trade because it was located along major waterways and it was a crossroads of (link between) Europe and Asia
Eastern Orthodox Religion This was the branch of Christianity that was practiced by the people of the Byzantine Empire (the Hagia Sophia was a famous church in Constantinople).
Justinian Code Written system of laws created by Emperor Justinian that was later adopted by various European civilizations. It was largely based on laws of the Roman Empire.
Legal Systems 1) Code of Hammurabi 2) Twelve Tables of Rome 3) Justinian Code
Golden Age of Islam (c. 700-1200 AD) There were amazing achievements in math, science, medicine, philosophy, and art. 1) Creation of medical encyclopedias. 2) Improvements in math (especially algebra). 3) Artwork that included calligraphy (beautiful writing), woolen carpets, and textiles
Islam Monotheistic Religion that believes in one god called Allah
Muslims Followers of Islam
Five Pillars Religious and moral/ethical duties and obligations that are required of all Muslims (i.e. - Make a pilgrimage to Mecca, pray five times daily, etc.).
Muhammad (Lived 570-632 AD) 1) The founder of Islam who was born in Mecca (the holiest city of Islam). 2) He is believed by Muslims to be the last of God’s prophets (messengers to the people).
Golden Age of Islam There were amazing achievements in math, science, medicine, philosophy, and art. The creation of medical encyclopedias. Improvements in math (especially algebra). Artwork that included calligraphy (beautiful writing), woolen carpets, and textiles
Middle Ages (400-1400 AD) The period of time in Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire and before the Renaissance.
Feudalism Political system of the Middle Ages in which kings throughout Europe gave land away to nobles in return for their loyalty and military service. Land was the basis of wealth and power. brought social stability, order, and structure to the Middle Ages
knights (warriors on horseback) Nobles that received land from the king
chivalry Knights had to follow chivalry (a code of behavior that stressed loyalty and bravery).
Manorialism During the Middle Ages, most people lived on manors (areas of land owned by a noble). Each manor had homes, farmland, artisans, water, and serfs (peasants) Each manor was mostly self-sufficient. Trade decreased during the Middle Ages
Crusades Religious war of the Middle Ages. Christians from Europe fought to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. The Holy Land is a sacred area of the Middle East that includes the city of Jerusalem
Causes of (reasons for) the Crusades 1) Believed they would be forgiven for their sins if they fought for God. 2) Believed the Holy Land should not be controlled by Muslims. 3) Poor Europeans wanted to escape from feudalism. 4) Many Europeans hoped to gain wealth from the Middle East.
Effects (results) of the Crusades: 1) Trade between Europe and the Middle East increased 2) Europeans learned about achievements that Muslims had made during their Golden Age ( math, science, medicine, and art). 3) Feudalism declines as many nobles had been killed and many serfs escaped
The Tang and Song Dynasties (600s-1200s) 1) The Chinese invented gunpowder 2) The Chinese invented the compass (which improved sailing/navigation by sea). 3) The Chinese invented block printing 4) The Chinese created works of art using porcelain (beautiful clay).
civil service exams The method the Chinese used to select highly qualified people to work in their government.
Japanese Geography Japan is located in East Asia and is considered to be an archipelago- A country that consists of a group of islands Japan has a long and irregular (unsmooth/rough) coastline. Japan is made up mostly of mountains, which has made farming difficult.
Terrace Farming In order to farm in the mountains, the Japanese had to dig and carve flat areas into the sides of mountains. NOTE: The Inca of Peru (in South America) used the same technique.
Shinto the religion of Japan. It is a religion (similar to Animism in Africa) that believes all living and non-living things in nature (such as trees, mountains, rivers, animals, etc.) have a spirit
Cultural Diffusion - Japan Early Japan was GREATLY influenced by contact with the neighboring Asian civilization of China. 1) Writing 2) Buddhism 3) Tea
Japanese Feudalism Similar to Europe during the Middle Ages
Emperor and Shogun (military general) They were the rulers of Japan.
Daimyo They were the wealthy nobles who were given land by the emperor and Shogun in return for loyalty and military service.
Samurai They were the warriors of Japanese society. They pledged loyalty to the Daimyo and had to fight when necessary. The samurai had a code of behavior called Bushido (which required the samurai to be loyal to the Daimyo and to fight bravely in battle).
Japanese feudalism was very similar to European feudalism: 1) Japanese samurai and European knights both followed a code of behavior. Bushido 2) Japanese and European feudalism were both decentralized, 3) Brought structure, order, and stability (calmness) to society.
Bushido Code of the Samurai, emphasized loyalty and bravery
Chivalry Code of the knights, emphasized loyalty and bravery
Africa's Geography 1) Very diverse (varied) geography that includes deserts (i.e.- the Sahara Desert), savanna (grasslands), and rainforests. 2) Due to geographic features, Africa is a very diverse continent with many different cultures. No two societies are alike
desertification (the spreading of desert lands). The Sahara continues to grow, which reduces the amount of available farmland.
Animism Traditional religion that is native to (began in) Africa. It is a religion (similar to Shinto in Japan) that believes all living and non-living things in nature (such as trees, mountains, rivers, animals, etc.) have a spirit.
Three of Africa’s greatest civilizations 1) Ghana 2) Mali 3) Songhai Ghana, Mali, and Songhai all grew very wealthy for the same reason: They were located along the Trans-Saharan trade routes and participated in the Gold-Salt trade
Mansa Musa Most famous ruler of Mali. He is important for several reasons: 1) Devoted Muslim who helped spread Islam in West Africa. 2) Made a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. 3) Turned the city of Timbuktu into a center of trade and Islamic learning
The Mongols (1100s-1400s) Originated on the steppes (grassy plains) of Central Asia. Nomads. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongols established the LARGEST EMPIRE in all of history, the Mongol empire included China, Central Asia, Russia, and much of the Middle East
Marco Polo 1) Italian merchant who visited the Mongols in China and remained there for almost 20 years. 2) After returning to Italy, he wrote down extensive information about China with the Mongols. His writing increased the desire of Europeans to trade in Asia.
Mongol Influence on Russia History a) After conquering Russia, they kept Russia isolated (removed) from developments that were taking place in Western Europe. b) Taught the Russians how to have a centralized government- A strong government with one ruler in firm control
The Black Death (1347-1351) Refers to the bubonic plague that killed 25 million people in Europe during the late Middle Ages. It tarted in East Asia and spread to Europe over trade routes on the Silk Road. The interaction of different groups of people helped spread the disease.
Major effects (results) of the Black Death 1) Depopulation- The population of Europe decreased from 85 million to 60 million. 2) Feudalism continued to decline as serfs fled from manors for better opportunities. 3) Trade temporarily decreased
Renaissance (1400-1600) The Golden Age of Western Europe. 1) Amazing achievements in the arts, literature, and science. 2) Scholars studied art and books from ancient Greece and Rome.
Humanism There was a focus on humans and life on earth instead of on God and Heaven.
The Renaissance began in Italy because: 1)The Italian city-states (like Venice and Florence) had great economies. These areas controlled Mediterranean trade and grew very wealthy. Much of this wealth was used to support artists.
Famous artists of the Renaissance Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael
Niccolo Machiavelli Renaissance author. Wrote “The Prince,” - a guide for government leaders. 1) Rulers must have absolute power and do whatever is necessary to stay in power 2) “The end justifies the means”- Leaders must do whatever is necessary to help their nation
The Protestant Reformation (1500s) The religious revolution that challenged the Catholic Church
Causes of (reasons for) the Protestant Reformation:and led to the further division of Christianity. 1) Europeans were angry that the Catholic Church was too concerned with worldly issues (i.e.- money and power). 2) Europeans were angry about indulgences- Reductions in punishment that were sold by the Catholic Church.
Martin Luther German monk who created the 95 Thesis, which were 95 arguments against the sale of indulgences.
Henry VIII King of England who separated from the Catholic Church because he wanted a divorce from his wife and the Catholic Church would not allow it.
John Calvin Swiss reformer who believed in predestination, which is the idea that God already knows who will be punished and who will be saved (i.e.- sent to Heaven).
Effects (results) of the Protestant Reformation: 1) The power of the Catholic Church (and the Pope) decreased. 2) The power of monarchs increased since they gained power over religion. 3) Religious unity in Europe came to an end- Before the Protestant Reformation, almost everyone in Western Europe
The Printing Press Invented by Johannes Gutenberg. 1) Helped spread new ideas (Reformation) quickly. 2) Martin Luther were able to print copies of their writings for others to read. 3) Helped to increase literacy (the ability of people to read and write).
Pre-Columbian Civilizations (c. 300-1500s AD) The societies that developed in the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans. The 3 main societies were the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca. They were all very organized, developed, and advanced civilizations.
The Maya 1) They lived in the lowland region of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America). 2) Achievements: a) They developed a calendar and a form of writing. b) Math- They invented the use of zero in math (like the Gupta of India).
The Aztec 1) They lived in Mexico and established a large empire. 2) Tenochtitlan- Capital city of the Aztec Empire. Achievements: a) Used a calendar and a form of writing. b) Chinampas- These were “floating gardens” built in lakes. Shortage of fertile land.
The Inca 1) Lived in the Andes Mountains of Peru (in South America) and established a large empire. 2) Machu Picchu- Most famous site of the Inca. Achievements: a) Developed a large network of roads) and footbridges in the Andes Mountains. b) Terrace Farming
Hernan Cortez 1521 - Conquered the Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro 1532 - Conquered the Inca
The Age of Exploration 1400s -1600s Europeans began sea voyages of exploration. Europeans reached the Americas and began to colonize (take over) areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The two European countries that first began voyages of exploration were Spain and Portugal
Causes of (reasons for) the Age of Exploration 1) Europeans wanted greater access to the spices and other products of Asia. 2) Europeans wanted to find sea routes to Asia since land routes were controlled by Muslims. 3) The compass, astrolabe and cartography (maps) made long sea voyages possible.
Bartholomeu Dias First explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa).
Vasco da Gama First explorer to reach India by going around Cape of Good Hope
Christopher Columbus- First explorer to reach the Americas.
Ferdinand Magellan First explorer to circumnavigate (sail around) the globe.
Effects (results) of the Age of Exploration: The Americas a) The Spanish and Portuguese colonized (took over) land in the Americas. b) Encomienda System- A labor system in which the Native Americans were forced to work on Spanish farming plantations (sugar) and in Spanish mines (gold and silver). c) Smallpox
Effects (results) of the Age of Exploration: Africa a) Europeans took slaves from Africa to the Americas to work on farming plantations. b) The voyage of slaves from Africa to the Americas was called the Middle Passage.
Mercantilism a) Colonies exist only to make the Mother Country (i.e.-Spain and Portugal) wealthy. b) Trade in the American colonies was controlled. Europeans took raw materials (like cotton) and sell finished products (like clothing) to colonists
Triangular Trade This was the trade route taken by Europeans in the Atlantic Ocean. Europeans traveled to Africa to get slaves, brought the slaves to their colonies in the Americas, and then returned to Europe with goods from the Americas.
Columbian Exchange This is the term used to describe the exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas and technology between the “Old World” (Europe) and the “New World” (North and South America) that took place as a result of exploration and colonization
Commercial Revolution (1500s-1600s) The new forms of business that were introduced during the Age of Exploration.
Joint-stock companies Investors would combine money to help pay for trading projects
Capitalism Form of business in which profits from one project are reinvested in other projects in order to make more money.
Ibn Battuta Arab/Muslim explorer who traveled a total of 75,000 miles and visited lands in Africa, Asia, and Europe.
Zheng He Chinese explorer of the Ming Dynasty who sailed the Indian and Pacific Oceans to lands that included Southeast Asia, India, the western coast of Africa.
Created by: JImmyjet81