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APHuG Unit 5 Vocab


agriculture the deliberate modification of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock
Carl Sauer cultural geographer who identified 11 areas where agricultural innovations occurred
vegetative planting reproduction of plants by cutting stems and dividing roots
seed agriculture reproducing plants from annual application of seeds
subsistence agriculture agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer's family or local consumption
commercial agriculture agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
agribusiness commercial agriculture where large corporations control different aspects of food production thus creating larger networks and using more technology
1st Agricultural Revolution the transition from hunting and gathering to plant domestication and animal domestication about 10,000 years ago
2nd Agricultural Revolution a movement which coincided with the Industrial Revolution where farmers developed new techniques of farming and used new tools--still relied on animal power, but production dramatically increased
3rd Agricultural Revolution 20th century revolution with three key elements: mechanization, bio-technology, and integration of primary, secondary, and tertiary activites
Green Revolution the diffusion of Western agriculture knowledge and technology to Mexico and Asia designed to increase food production through hybrid seeds and new methods
intensive subsistence agriculture form of farming where farmers must work more intensively to subsist on a parcel of land and all possible farm land is used
shifting cultivaiton usually takes place in tropical forest, vegetation is cleared and land is used for crops for a few years, then left for 20+ years when soil nutrients are used up
swidden the patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning under shifting cultivation
pastoral nomadism form of subsistence agriculture based on herding as land used for grazing
transhumance the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
clustered rural settlements a rural settlement in which the houses are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
dispersed rural settlements rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
enclosure movement the process of consolidating small landholdings into a few larger farms in England during the eighteenth century which helps start the 2nd Agricultural Revolution
Von Thunen's model explains and predicts commercial agricultural land use with more intensive land uses closer to the market place and more extensive land farther from the market
milkshed ring surrounding a city from which milk can by supplied without spoiling
commercial grain farming a form of farming where a cereal crop is grown for profit
double cropping harvesting twice a year from the same field
crop rotation the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
luxury crops non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
plantation a large piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop, often a luxury crop
truck farming also know as market gardening; a form of commercial agricultural specializing in growing vegetables for the market
Created by: alicemb00