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Political AP HUG

The most important terms in Chapter 8.

TermDefinition
Antecedent Boundary boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized Descriptive of a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long- standing antagonisms toward each other.
Centripetal An attitude that tens to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Centrifugal A force that divides people and countries
Compact State A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Commonwealth of Independent States It includes the United Kingdom and 52 other states that were once British colonies. Most other members are African states or island countries in the Caribbean or Pacific. Commonwealth members seek economic and cultural cooperation.
Domino Theory The political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. By President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Elongated State A state with a long narrow shape.
Colonialism Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Enclave An enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it.
European Union An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
Exclave A part of a country that is separated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
Federal State An international organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Fragmented State A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Geometric Political Boundaries A political border drawn in a regular, geometric manner, often a straight line, without regard for environmental or cultural patterns.
Gerrymandering Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mckinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Imperialism Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous group.
Land Empire Involves conquest force. armies will attack, pillage, and plunder their way though land, taking resources by force.
Landlocked State A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Microstate A state that encompasses a very small land area.
Nation Tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes,
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Signed on January 1, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada,
North Atlantic Treaty Orangization An international organization that has joined together for military purposes.
Organic Theory The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age. By Friedrich Ratzel.
Perforated State A state that completely surrounds another one.
Political Geography The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
Physical Boundary Political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers.
Prorupted State An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Relic Boundary Old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but that have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography.
Rimland Theory Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest.
Self Determination Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves,
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
State An area organized into a political unit and rule by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Subsequent Boundaries Boundary line established after an area has been settled that considers the social and cultural characteristics of the area.
Superimposed Boundaries Boundary line drawn in an are ignoring the existing cultural pattern.
Supranational Organization Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives.
Territorial Dispute Any dispute over land ownership.
Unitary State An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Theocracy A state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders.
United Nations A global supranational organization established at the end of World War II to foster international security and cooperation.
Confederation A form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose.
East/West Divide Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia.
Electoral College A certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state's population. The candidate who receives a higher proportion of electoral votes within a state receives all the electoral vote for that state.
Geopolitics The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur.
International Organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination.
Law of the Sea Law of the sea Law establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
Lebebsraum Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people.
North/South Divide The economic division between the wealth countries of Europe and North America, Japan, and Australia and the generally poorer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Organization for Petroleum An international economic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil.
Popular Vote The tally of each individual's vote within a given geographic area.
Redstricting The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes.
Reapportionment The process of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories.
Rectangular State A state whose territory is rectangular in shape.
States Rights Rights and powers believed to be in the authority of the state rather than the federal government.
Created by: AlwaysSnape394