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Spinal cord and nerv

Neurology 300

QuestionAnswer
How many Branches does a spinal nerve have? Four
The highest point of the Illac crest is at lumbar vertebrae? Four
Somatic nervous system refers to which type of muscles Motor axons
The end of the spinal cord is at lumbar vertebrae? Two
When you bend forward what happens to the spinal processes? They Separate
Which space is the epidural needle inserted (L3-s1)? Epidural space
What type of cells nourish neurons, form Myelin, protect, support nervous system; a.k.a. glia or simple cells? (Not neurons) Neuroglia
Blood vessels that feed blood vessels are termed? Vasavasorum
Blood vessels that feed nerve cells are termed? Vasanervorum
What is it called when only a single nerve is affected? Mononeuropathy
What is it called when several peripheral nerves are involved? Poly neuropathy
What is it termed when there is involvement of the nerve root as it emerges from the spinal cord? Radiculoneuropathy
What is it termed when there is involvement of several nerve roots and infection creates an inflammatory response? Polyradiculitis
Which vertebrae numbers 3 to 5 is the location of where they perform a spinal tap? lumbar
A spinal tap is a lumbar puncture/long needle to withdraw ? ( goes through the Dura Mater) Spinal fluid
What is it termed when there is a local conduction block in a peripheral nerve (no damage to axon or tissue distal to the lesion) Compression syndrome of peripheral nerve
Where does compression syndrome of peripheral nerve occur?_____ and what are the symptoms?, tingling, numbing, weakness, pain PNS
What is the term used for the Salvatory gland or cheek gland? Parotoid
The term used for bundle of axons in the CNS (brain and spinal cord) is termed? Tracts
The term used for bundles of axons in the PNS (peripheral nervous system) is? Nerves
The term used for a group of cell bodies in the brain (C N S) is? Nuclei
The term used for a group of cell bodies in the PNS is? Ganglion
Spinal nerves have three coverings what are they and which Layer are they? 1. Endoneurium- inner -wraps axon 2. _________ - middle - wraps fascicles 3. Epineurium - upper - wraps entire nerve Perineurium
The posterior root manages which type of axons? Sensory axons
The posterior root works within which system? (afferent) – skin, muscles, internal organs CNS
The anterior root manages which type of axons? Motor axons
The interior route works within which system? (efferent) – muscles, glands CNS
Which direction do spinal cord nerves pass? ____– (as they exit the vertebral canal through intervertebral foramina) Laterally
Which direction do nerves from lumbar/sacral/Coccygeal exit? They angle _______ inferiorly
Gray matter receives input from receptors via which type of neuron? Sensory
From the posterior root sensory axons are incoming and send info to? Interneurons
Lateral gray horns are only located in which part of the spine?_______and upper lumbar spine Thoracic
The autonomic nervous system is comprised of C N S and P NS systems, only one of them generates Myelin sheaths easily which one? PNS
When you hit the funny bone which nerve have you hit? Ulnar nerve
There are three main nerve injuries (neurapraxia, axono tomesis, and neurotomesis); which one does not involve being injured at the point of injury and distally? Neurapraxia
A nerve injury that is segmental Demyelination is termed? Neurapraxia
A nerve injury that only affects PNS, has no break in fibers, is fixable/reversible, is mild injury with mild local compression, 1st degree? Neurapraxia
A nerve injury with endoneurium intact/prolonged severe compression/2ndDegree/sensory/motor/autonomic loss/greater than six month recovery? Axonotmesis
Axonotmesis and neurotmesis both exhibit this type of regeneration wallerian
Axonotmesis can still be repaired because this… Is still intact EndoNerium
This nerve injury results in permanently damaged nerve because it has no endoneurium (membrane present), 3rd degree? Neurotmesis
The only option for repair of neurotmesis? Surgical
Examples of causes of peripheral nerve lesions include; trauma; crutches; compression of rest; fracture; edema; carrying backpack; and this _____ _____which is time for wearing tight jeans? Moralgia parasthetica
What is the purpose of cerebral spinal fluid? (Hydraulic cushion) Shock absorption
Where is the spinal cord located? (It is the vertebral foraMina of all of the vertebrae stacked) Vertebral canal
What are the meninges? They are three protective ______ ______ coverings (surround brain and spinal cord) Connective tissue
Spinal meninges connect with? Cranial meninges
Which is the deepest meninges layer that supplies oxygen and nutrients to brain and spinal cord? Pia mater
Which is the most superficial meninges layer (runs from occipital bone to S2)? Dura mater
Where does spinal nerve c1 begin? In relation to the C-1 vertebrae Superior
The meninges layer that is most delicate, avascular, loose collagen, elastic fibers? Arachnoid mater
Part of the Pia mater, triangular membrane extensions, fuse with arachnoid mater, protect spinal cord, come outside? Denticulate ligament
What is the term for the space that has cerebral spinal fluid, a vascular, and shock absorbing? Sub arachnoid space
Inter-vertebral disc between L1 and L2 is ? Conus medullaris
Anchors spinal cord to coccyx? (Runs from conus medullaris) Filum terminale
Nerves that don't exit at the same level that the rest of the nerves exit the spinal cord? cauda equina
How many pairs of the spinal nerves are there in the cervical spine? (_______ cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal eight
What is the purpose of the spinal nerves between the spinal cord and the body? Communication
Autonomic nervous system refers to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and ______ Glands
The three layers of nervous tissue that protects the spinal cord include the boney Vertebral column; the space with cerebral spinal fluid ; and ______ Meninges
Dura Mater is the superficial dense irregular connective tissue; Arachnoid metre is avascular, middle layer, some elastic fibres; and the last layer of the meniges is_____ ______ which is vascular innermost, then, transparent, lots of blood vessels Pia mater
The three spaces involved with meninges include: epidural (fat and CT) ; sub dural (interstitial fluid) and______________(shock absorbing, avascular, cerebral spinal fluid) Arachnoid
A typical spinal nerve has how many connections to cords? (Ant and post) Two
Spinal meninges and cerebral spinal fluid and at what vertebrae? s2
What are the four branches of the spinal nerves? Posterior ramus; anterior Ramis; meningeal branch;______ ______ Rami communicantes
Spinal cord is absent between? L2-S2
The Dura mater fuses with outermost layer of the nerve called? Epineurium
The landmark for administering a spinal tap which passes through the fourth lumbar vertebrae is called? Supracristal line
What are the superior and inferior boundaries of the spinal Dura Mater? _____ to S2 Occipital
Bundles of Myelinated axons of neurons are termed? White matter
Dendrites; cell bodies of neurons; unmyelinated axons and neuralgia are termed? Gray matter
Extends from the medulla oblongata of the brain to the superior border of the second lumbar vertebrae? Spinal cord
Lateral gray horns are found in which segments of the spinal cord? ______And upper lumbar segments Thoracic
What portion of the spinal cord connects with the nerves of the upper limbs? (Brachial plexus) Cervical enlargement
Axons that carry nerve impulses towards the brain (ascending)? Sensory tracts
Axons that carry nerve impulses away from the brain (descending)? Motor tracts
The cervical enlargement extends from C4- T1and is responsible for supplying the? upper limb
The lumbar enlargement extends from T9-t 12 and is responsible for supplying the? Lower limb
An extension of Pia mater that extends inferiorly, fuses with arachnoid mater, Dura Mater and anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx? Filum terminale
Contains axons of sensory/feeling neurons, and cell bodies of interneurons. Posterior gray horn
Contains cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons (regulate cardiac MM, smooth muscles and glands; PNS)? Lateral gray horn
Contains cell bodies of somatic (skeletal) Motor neurons? Anterior gray horn
What is the difference between a horn and a column? Horn is gray matter and call him is? White matter
Two bundles of axons are called? Root
White matter is more abundant in the cervical or sacral segments? Cervical
Smaller bundles of axons are called? Rootlets
Where are there more sensory and motor trucks in the upper or lower segments of spinal cord? Upper
These contains sensory axons that conducts nerve impulses from sensory receptors in skin muscle and internal organs? Posterior root
Cell bodies of a sensory neuron are termed? Posterior root ganglion
Contain axons of motor neurons (conduct nerve impulses from CNS to effectors) muscles and glands? Anterior root
Roots of the lower spinal nerves (wisps of hair)? Cauda equina
Bundles of axons with common origin; information; destination? Columns
gray mater is the most abundant in the cervical and lumbar segments b/c it is responsible for sensory and motor innervation of? Limbs
Created by: amellstrom