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Term. Challenge #2

ABO Blood Groups A system in which human blood is classified by whether the red blood cells contain A or B antigens.
Type A Blood Group A person has two A genes
Type B Blood Group A person has two B genes
Type O Blood Group A person has neither the A nor B gene
Acarus scabiei The itch mite; The mite burrows into the skin and lays eggs within the burrow; intense itching and rash develop near the burrow in about a month.
acid-fast stain A laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body substance is infected with the bacteria that causes tuberculosis and other illnesses.
ameba A single-celled (protozoan) organism that constantly changes shape. It can infect the bowels to cause diarrhea and the liver to cause abscess formation.
anisocytes Refers to the size of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are the most abundant cell types in blood.
antigens Markers on the outside of such organisms as bacteria and viruses, which allow antibodies to recognize foreign invaders.
aspiration (1) the act of removing a fluid, as pus or serum, from a cavity of the body, by a hollow needle or trocar connected with a suction syringe.
aspiration (2) the act of inhaling fluid or a foreign body into the bronchi and lungs, often after vomiting.
bacteriuria the presence of bacteria in the urine.
band (lab) Refers to a narrow portion of a chromosome, which has been darkened by interaction with a dye.
blood bank A facility, in which blood is collected from donors, typed, separated into several components, stored, and/or prepared for transfusion to recipients.
blood glucose The main sugar that the body makes from the three elements of food--proteins, fats, and carbohydrates--but mostly from carbohydrates. Cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.
brushing Cytology The scraping of loose cells from the cervix, endocervix and vaginal wall.
BUN blood urea nitrogen
calcium A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored.
carbon dioxide (CO2) an odorless, colorless gas resulting from oxidation of carbon, formed in the tissues and eliminated by the lungs
cardiac isoenzymes (creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transferase [GOT])
casts (lab) Small fibrous objects formed from materials that collect in the kidney tubules and are washed out by normal urine flow.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) apoplexy resulting from hemorrhage into the brain or occlusion of the cerebral vessels from an embolism or thrombosis.
chemistry (dept.) The section of the laboratory that does quantitative chemical analysis
chemistry panel groups of tests that are routinely ordered to determine a person’s general health status
chloride a salt of hydrochloric acid; any binary compound of chlorine
cholesterol A pearly, fatlike steroid alcohol found in animal fats and oils. Not contained in plant-derived foods.
coagulation factors factors essential to normal blood clotting, whose absence, diminution, or excess may lead to abnormality of the clotting.
colony/colonies A group of identical cells (clones) derived from a single parent cell.
complete blood count (CBC) a series of tests of the peripheral blood, including the hematocrit, the amount of hemoglobin, and counts of each type of formed element.
congestive heart failure (CHF) A condition where there is ineffective pumping of the heart leading to an accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
creatine phosphokinase (CPK) An enzyme that is contained in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. An important test for the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack.
creatinine A waste product of protein metabolism that is found in the urine. Can be measured to assess overall kidney function.
crystals Formations of small irregular solid material often composed of calcium, uric acid and phosphate.
culture and sensitivity (C & S) a laboratory test used to determine the presence and type of bacteria in an infection and determine the antibiotics most likely to be effective in killing the bacteria.
cytology The study of cells.
Dextrostix color test for approximate estimation of blood glucose
differential, white cell Test that assesses the ability of the body to respond to and eliminate infection; it is normally run as part of the complete blood count (CBC).
digoxin a cardiotonic glycoside obtained from the leaves of Digitalis lanata; used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Dilantin Trademark for an anti-convulsive medication used to treat seizure disorders
electrolytes Salts and minerals that can conduct electrical impulses in the body
Eosinophils (eos) white blood cells that have rough, round granules of cytoplasm that stain with eosin; they become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of blood under standardized conditions; a high rate usually indicates the presence of inflammation
gout Recurrent acute arthritis of peripheral joints caused by the accumulation of monosodium urate crytals. Often presents as pain and swelling confined to one joint.
gram a unit of weight in the metric system.
Gram stain a staining technique used to classify bacteria
hematocrit the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood
hematology the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs
hematuria the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
hemoconcentration A decrease in plasma volume resulting in an increase in the concentration of red blood cells in blood.
hemoglobin The iron containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
High-powered field (HPF) when used in relation to microscopy references the area visible under the maximum magnification power of the objective being used.
immunizations a process that increases an organism's reaction to an antigen, thereby improving the organism's ability to resist or overcome infection
IV administration of nutrients through a vein
ketones Poisonous acidic chemicals produced by the body when fat instead of glucose is burned for energy. Breakdown of fat occurs when not enough insulin is present to channel glucose into body cells.
lactic dehydrogenase Enzymes found in the blood and other body tissues, and involved in energy production in cells..
LDH Lactate dehydrogenase, also called lactic dehydrogenase
LDL low-density lipoprotein; a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
lymphocytes (Lymps) White blood cells that fight infection and disease.
microbiology (dept) The facility that studies organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, such as bacteria, viruses and yeasts.
microgram (mcg) one millionth of a gram.
milliequivalent (mEq) the number of grams of solute dissolved in 1 ml of a normal solution. milligram (mg)
milliliter (mL) a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
millimeter (mm) a metric unit of length equal to one thousandth of a meter
mites An insect parasite belonging to the order Acarina. The organism that causes scabies.
monocytes (monos) the largest of the white blood cells
mononucleosis an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious
mycobacteria A large family of bacteria that have unusually waxy cell walls that are resistant to digestion.
myeloblasts Immature cells of the bone marrow that is the precursor of a myelocyte.
myelocytes Large cells of the bone marrow that is a precursor of the mature granulocyte of the blood.
nephron Any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
neutrophils White blood cells with cytoplasmic granules that consume harmful bacteria, fungi, and other foreign materials.
nystagmus Involuntary movements of the eyeballs
occult obscure or hidden from view.
ova eggs; female reproductive cells; female gametes
Pap smear a sample of secretions and superficial cells of the uterine cervix and uterus; examined with a microscope to detect any abnormal cells
papilledema swelling of the optic disc (where the optic nerve enters the eyeball); usually associated with an increase in intraocular pressure
parasites animals or plants that live in or on a host (another animal or plant); obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) A blood test that is done to investigate bleeding disorders and to monitor patients taking an anticlotting drug (heparin).
platelet tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
platelet count A diagnostic test that determines the number of platelets in the patient's blood;
PMN abbreviation for polymorphonuclear cell; polymorphonuclear leukocytes
poikilocytes a general term for abnormally shaped erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are the most abundant cell types in blood.
potassium an element/mineral that acts as an electrolyte. Side effects of deficiency include cardiac arrhythmia, diarrhea, moodiness, nausea, and weakness.
proteinuria the presence of excessive protein in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
Prothrombin (PT) A blood-clotting plasma protein
Red blood cell (RBC) a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues
Rh factor An antigen that may or may not be present on the surface of human blood cells.
Rh-positive If a person's blood has this antigen, their blood type is positive
Rh-negative If a person's blood does not have this antigen, it is negative.
Rheumatoid arthritis a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
scraping a removal of the superficial elements of the skin for laboratory examination for parasitic and fungal elements.
serum (blood) watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen
serum lipid profile A group of cholesterol tests that are often ordered together to determine risk of coronary heart disease. Profile includes: Total cholesterol, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), & Triglycerides
SGOT Serum glutamic aminotransferase; an enzyme used to measure liver function.
SGPT serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase; An enzyme produced by the liver. Elevated levels in the blood indicate a liver problem.
Shift to the left a predominance of immature leukocytes noted in a differential white blood cell count. It is usually indicative of an infection or inflammation
Sickle cell anemia A disease passed down through families in which red blood cells are an abnormal crescent shape. (Red blood cells are normally shaped like a disc.)
sodium The major positive ion in fluid outside of cells. When combined with chloride, the resulting substance is table salt. Too much or too little can cause cells to malfunction, and extremes can be fatal.
specific gravity A measure of concentration. It is the weight of a substance, as compared (as a ratio) with that of an equal volume of water; the density of a substance relative to the density of water
sputum expectorated matter; saliva mixed with discharges from the respiratory passages
syphillis An infectious systemic disease that may be either congenital or acquired through sexual contact or contaminated needles.
target cells Abnormal red blood cells, that have a bullseye appearance.
therapeutic range The range of concentrations at which a drug or other agent is effective with minimal toxicity to most Pts.
toxicity the degree to which something is poisonous
triglycerides The major form of fat. Consists of three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol.
type & crossmatch The process of determining the blood type and rH factor of a sample of blood & finding the best donor for a patient prior to blood transfusion
Uric acid an acid formed in the breakdown of nucleoproteins in tissues; often tested when gout is suspected since a high uric acid content in the blood often causes gout symptoms and the formation of stones
urinalysis the chemical analysis of urine (for medical diagnosis)
washing a technique in the preparation of x-ray films to remove fixative; an important part of producing a good film that will keep for a long time without discoloring.
White blood cell (WBC) blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system
WBC count (lab) A blood test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs).
erythema Redness of the skin caused by dilatation and congestion of the capillaries, often a sign of inflammation or infection.
excursions ranges of movement regularly repeated in performance of a function
flexion/extension films X-rays commonly used to identify abnormalities in motion
foramen a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure
hyposthenuria the secretion of urine of low specific gravity due to inability of the kidney to concentrate the urine normally
provisional diagnosis not 100% sure of the diagnosis because more information is needed; . "guesstimating"
differential diagnosis more than one possibility for a diagnosis and they must differentiate between these to determine the actual diagnosis.
carotid arterial pulse arterial pulsations in the neck of blood flowing away from the heart to the head
jugular venus pulse venous pulsations in the neck of blood flowing to the heart from the head
dorsalis pedis pulse pulse located on top of the foot
femoral pulse pulse located in the thigh
peripheral pulse pulse measured in the limbs
popliteal pulse pulse located above the knee, found by holding the bent knee.
tibialis posterior pulse pulse located on the medial side of the ankle
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein caused by or associated with the formation of a blood clot.
Created by: chocoholic