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AP World Religions

Summerville High School AP World History

Hijrah or Hegira Muhammad's’ journey from Mecca to Medina
Pilgrimage trip made for religious purposes, brings one closer to your faith
Ancestor person from who you are descended, for instance a great-grandparent
Polytheism belief in many gods
Neopaganism modern practice of worshiping an ancient or pagan religion
Diviners shaman or religious leader in an animistic religion
Mosque Muslim place of worship
Hajj Muslim pilgrimage, one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Kinship group of people who are related to each other, usually includes extended family
Caliph “Successor” or Muslim leader
Caliphate Muslim state, led by a caliph
Nirvana Buddhist concept, to escape from the cycle of reincarnation
Zen type of Buddhism, focuses on meditation to achieve a state of enlightenment
Monastery home to monks, generally found in Christian and Buddhist relgions
Devout faithful (generally to a religion)
Secular focusing on worldly issues rather than the afterlife
Muhammad founder of Islam, considered to be the last and greatest prophet of Allah
Jesus In Christian tradition, the son of God and the messiah or savior
Prophet person who delivers a message from God
Monotheism the exclusive worship of one god; introduced by Jews into the Middle East Zoroastrianism
Jesus of Nazareth prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah; executed c. 30 C.E. Ka’ba revered pre-Islamic shrine in Mecca; incorporated into Muslim worship.
Medina town northeast of Mecca; asked Muhammad to resolve its intergroup differences; Muhammad’s flight to Medina, the hijra, in 622 began the Muslim calendar.
Khadijah the wife of Muhammad.
Qur’an the word of god as revealed through Muhammad; made into the holy book of Islam.
Ali cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for the development of shi’ism.
umma community of the faithful within Islam.
zakat tax for charity obligatory for all Muslims.
five pillars the obligatory religious duties for all Muslims
Ramadan Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset.
Copts, Nestorians Christian sects of Syria and Egypt; gave their support to the Arabic Muslims.
Sunnis followers of the majority interpretation within Islam; included the Umayyads.
Shi’a followers of Ali’s interpretation of Islam.
Zionism European Jewish movement of the 1860s and 1870s that argued that Jews return to their Holy Land; eventually identified with settlement in Palestine.
religious revivalism an approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life.
bhaktic cults Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses—especially Shiva, Vishnu, and Kali.
Akbar son and successor of Humayn; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty; followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority.
Din-i-Ilahi religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism; did not survive his death.
Sikhs Indian sect, beginning as a synthesis of Hindu and Muslim faiths; pushed to opposition to Muslim and Mughul rule.
Confucius major Chinese philosopher born in 6th century B.C.E.; sayings collected in Analects; philosophy based on the need for restoration of social order through the role of superior men.
Buddha creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born in the 6th century B.C.E.; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for earthly things.
Shintoism religion of the early Japanese court; included the worship of numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world.
Mahayana version of Buddhism popular in China; emphasized Buddha’s role as a savior.
Bodhisattvas Buddhist holy men who refused advance toward nirvana to receive prayers of the living to help them reach holiness.
pure land Buddhism emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism, popular among masses of Chinese society.
Chan Buddhism called Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
Zen Buddhism called Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
Empress Wu Tang ruler 690–705; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Wuzong Tang emperor (841–847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism.
White Lotus Society secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty.
Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall Jesuit scholars at the Ming court; also skilled scientists; won few converts to Christianity.
Francis Xavier Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower-caste groups; later worked in Japan.
griots professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire.
Sharia Islamic law, defined among other things the patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance.
Obeah African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
Candomble African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Vodun African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti Augustine (Saint) North African Christian theologian; made major contributions in incorporating elements of classical philosophy into Christianity.
Paul one of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church.
Pope Bishop of Rome; head of the Catholic church in western Europe.
Council of Nicaea Christian council that met in 325 C.E. to determine orthodoxy with respect to the Trinity; insisted on divinity of all persons of the Trinity.
Benedict of Nursia founder of monasticism in the former western half of the Roman Empire; established the Benedictine rule in the 6th century.
Crusades invasions of western Christians into Muslim lands, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms enduring until 1291.
Hagia Sophia great domed church constructed during reign of Justinian. Paul one of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church.
Pope Bishop of Rome; head of the Catholic church in western Europe.
Cyril and Methodius Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans; responsible for creation of Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
Vladimir I ruler of Kiev (980–1015); converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity.
Russian Orthodoxy Russian form of Christianity brought from Byzantine Empire. Pope Urban II organized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.
Gregory VII 11th-century pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops.
investiture the practice of appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory attempted to stop lay investiture, leading to a conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Peter Abelard Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Thomas Aquinas creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
scholasticism dominant medieval philosophical approach; so called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems.
Martin Luther German Catholic monk who initiated the Protestant Reformation; emphasized the primacy of faith for gaining salvation in place of Catholic sacraments; rejected papal authority.
Protestantism general wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; formally began with Martin Luther in 1517.
Anglican church form of Protestantism in England established by Henry VIII.
Jean Calvin French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group in Geneva; in the long run encouraged wider public education and access to government.
Catholic Reformation Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; reformed and revived Catholic doctrine.
Jesuits Catholic religious order founded during Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work outside of Europe.
Edict of Nantes 1598 grant of tolerance in France to French Protestants after lengthy civil wars between Catholics and Protestants.
witchcraft persecution outburst reflecting uncertainties about religious truth and resentments against the poor, especially women.
Vedas Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century B.C.E.
Upanishads later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority
dharma the caste position and career determined by a person’s birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one’s social position and perform their occupation to the best of one’s ability in order to have a better situation in the next life.
gurus originally referred to as brahmans, who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas.
Vishnu the brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped.
Shiva Hindu god of destruction and reproduction; worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change.
reincarnation the successive rebirth of the soul according to merits earned in previous lives.
Nirvana the Buddhist state of enlightenment; a state of tranquility.
stupas stone shrines built to house relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms
Devi mother goddess within Hinduism; devotion to her spread widely after the collapse of the Gupta and encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual
Almohadis a later puritanical Islamic reform movement among the Berbers of northwest Africa; also built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain.
Created by: amygilstrap7