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Medical Terminology

Chapter 5 & 6 - Digestive System Terms

absorption passage of materials through to walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids small building blocks of proteins; released when proteins are digested
amylase enzymes secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch
anus terminal end of opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum
bile digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
bilirubin pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel intestines
canine teeth pointed teeth next to the incisors
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon consists of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments
common bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
defecation elimination of feces
deglution swallowing
dentin primary material found in teeth
digestion breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestines
elimination act of removal of materials from the body
emulsification physical process of breaking up fat globules
enamel hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme chemical that speeds up reactions between substances
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids substances produces when fats are digested
feces solid wastes; stool
gallbladder small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid substance produces by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum third part of the small intestines
incisor on of four front teeth
insulin hormone produces by endocrine cells of the pancreas;
jejunum second part of the small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme needed to digest fats
liver large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) ring of muscles between esophagus and stomach
mastication chewing
pancreas organ under the stomach; produces insulin and anzymes
papillae small, nipple-like elevations on the tongue
parotid glands salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
pharynx throat,
portal vein large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease enzyme that digests protein
pyloric sphincter ring of muscles at the end of the stomach
pylorus distal region ofthe stomach
rectum last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon forth and last segment of the colon
sphincter circular ring on muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
triglycerides fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
uvula soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
villi microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
Created by: KariTansowny



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