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A&P 1 Ch. 1 Quiz

National College Nursing A&P 1 CH. 1 Quiz

QuestionAnswer
Science involves logical inquiry based on what? experimentation
idea or principle to be tested in experiments hypothesis
series of tests of a hypothesis; experiment
eliminates biases or outside or outside influences controlled experiment
a hypothesis that has been proved by experiments to have a high degree of confidence theory
a theory that has an unusually high level of confidence law
the process of science is active and changing as new experiments add new knowledge
______ is affected by ______ and _______ is affected by ________ science,culture, culture, society
branches of biology concerned with the form and functions of the body Anatomy and Physiology
science of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts Anatomy
study of the body and its parts relying only on the naked eye as a tool for observation gross anatomy
study of body parts with a microscop microscopic anatomy
study of cells cytology
study of tissues histology
study of human growth and development developmental anatomy
study of diseased body structures pathological anatomy
study of the body by systems systemic anatomy
science of the functions of organisms physiology
subdivisions named according to 1.)organism involved,(human or plant physiology) 2.)organizational level, (molecular or cellular physiology) 3.)systemic function (respiratory physiology, neurophysiology, or cardiovascular physiology
Scientific terms are often based on _____ or _____ word parts Greek, Latin
_____-is provided in the pull-out section near the front of this textbook a terminology tool
Terminologia Anatomica, Terminologica Histologica Official list of anatomical terms (TA Gross Anatomy; TH microscopic anatomy)
(TA& TH) Terms are listed in ____, _____ and by ____ Latin, English, numbaer
(TA & TH) Avoids use of ____ eponyms (terms based on a person's name)
Physiology terms (do/do not) have an official list but follow the same principles as TA & TH do
a _____ criterion may be adequate to describe life single
living organisms are self-organized and self-maintaining autopoiesis
if it is made of one or more cells, is is alive cell theory
characteristics of life considered most important in humans see table 1-1
sum total of all physical and chemical ractions occurring in the living body metabolism
basis for life chemical level
organization of ______ structures separates living material from nonliving material chemical
organization of atoms, molecules, and macromolecules results in living matter- a gel called_______ cytoplasm
Chemical structures organized to form _____ that perform individual funtios organelles
It is the functions of the ______ taht allow the cell to live organelles
Dozens of organelles have been identified, including: Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum
smallest & most numerous units that possess and exhibit characteristics of life Cells
each cell has a ______ surrounded by cytoplasm within a limiting membrane nucleus
cells ______ to perform unique functions differentiate
an organization of similar cells specialized to perform a certain function tissue
tissue cells are surrounded by nonliving matrix
4 major tissue types a) epithelial tissue b) connective tissue c) muscle tissue d) nervous tissue
organization of several different kinds of tissues to perform a special function organ
______ represent discrete and functionally complex operational units organs
each organ has a unique ___, ____, _______, and _______ in the body size, shape, appearance, placement
most complex organizational units of the body systems
system levels involves varying numbers and kins of organs arranged to perform complex functions a) support and movement b) communication, control and integration c) transportation and defense d) respiration,nutrition, and excretion e) reproduction and development
the living human organism is ________ than the sum of its parts greater
All of the components interact to allow the human to______ and _______ survive and flourish
what are the levels of organization Chemical Organelle Cellular Tissue Organ System Organism
Anatomical Position is ________ position reference
Body _____ with arms at _____ and palms ______ erect,sides, forward
______ and _______ pointing forward head and feet
a term meaning tht right and left sides of the body are mirror images bilateral symmetry
bilateral symmetry confers balanced _______ proportions
________structures are on the same side of the body in anatomical position ipsilateral
__________ structures are on opposite sides of the body in anatomical position contralateral
what are the 2 body cavities? ventral and dorsal
r. and l, plerual cavities and the mediastinum are included in what cavity?? thoracic cavity
what 2 cavities are part of the abdominopelvic cavity? abdominal and pelvic
what 2 cavities are part of the dorsal cavity? cranial and spinal
what are the body regions a)axial subdivision b) appendicular subdivision c) abdominal regions d) abdominopelivc quadrants
wast is included:- axial subdivision head, neck torso, or trunk and its subdivisions
what is included:- appendicular subdivision upper extremity and subdivisions lower extremity and subdivision
what are the abdominal regions r. hypochondriac epigastric l. hypochondriac r. lumbar umblical l. lumbar r. iliac (inguinal) hypogastric left iliac (inguinal)
Abdominopelvic quadrants? right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant right lower quadrant left lower quadrant
directional terms? superior and inferior anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) medial and lateral prosimal and distal superficial and deep
terns related to organs lumen (luminal central and peripheral medullary (medulla) and cortical (cortex) apical (apex) and basal (base
lines of orientation alone which cuts or sections can be made to divide the body, or body part, into smaller pieces plane
there are ___ major planes which lie at right angles to each other 3
runs front to back to that sections through this plane divide the body (or body part) into right and left sides sagittal
a sagittal plan that sections the body or part into right and left halves midsagittal or median sagittal
runs lengthwise (side to side) and divides the body (or part) into anterior and posterior portions frontal (coronal) pane
is a "crosswise" plane and it divides the body (or part into upper and lower parts transverse
________________ of structure and function is an important and unifying concept in the study of anatomy and physiology complementarity
anatomical structures often seemed ________ to perform specific functions because of their unique size, shape, form or body location "designed"
Understanding the _______ of structure and function assists in the integration of otherwise isolated factual information interaction
used to describe the relatively constant states maintained by the body- internal environment around body cells remains constant homeostasis
the term homeostasis was coined by what American physiologist Walter B. Cannon
body adjusts important variables from a normal ______ in an acceptable or normal range "set point"
temperature regulation regulation of blood carbon dioxide level regulation of blood glucose level are all examples of homeostasis
devices for maintaining or restoring homeostasis by self-regulation through feedback control loops homeostatic control mechanisms
basic components of control mechanisms are sensor mechansims integrating, or control, center effector mechanism feedback
specific sensors detect and react to any changes from normal sensor mechanism
information is analyzed and integrated, and then if needed, a specific action is initiated integrating, or control, center
effectors directly influence controlled physiological variables effector mechanism
process of information about a variable constantly flowing back from the sensor to the integrator feedback
*are inhibitory *stabilize physiological variables *produce an action that is opposite to the change that activated the system *are responsible for maintaining homeostasis *are much more common that positive feedback control systems negative feedback control systems
*are stimulatory *amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring * tend to produce destablilizing effects and disrupt homeostasis *bring specific body functions to swift completion positive feedback control systems
occur when information flows ahead to another process or feedback loop to trigger a change in anticipation of an event that will follow feed-forward control systems
a) regulation within cells b)genes or enzymes can regulate cell processes intracellular control
a) regulation withing tissues or organs b) may involve chemical signals c) may involve other "built in" mechanisms intrinsic control (autoregulation)
a)regulation from organ to organ b) may involve nerve signals c) may involve endocrine signals (hormones) extrinsic control
structure and function of body undergo changes over the early years __________ and late years ___________ developmental processes, aging processes
infancy and old age are perios when the body functions ______ least well
__________ is period of greatest homeostatic effiiency young adulthood
term to describe the wasting effects of advancing age atrophy
high sodium effect edema
low sodium effect seizure, confusion
potassium high or low can cause cramps, cardiac arrest
_____ controls almost everything hypothalamus
Created by: athenia