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WH C 12: Absolutism

World History C 12: Absolutism and Revolution in Europe

absolute monarch a king or queen with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs
divine right a belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
mercenary a soldier serving in a foreign army for pay
autocratic a ruler who has unlimited powers
port a town or city with a harbor where ships load or unload, especially one where customs officers are stationed
partition to divide up (in this case land)
westernization the copying of ideas, cultural norms, and technology from countries in Europe and North America by other countries
depopulation the decrease of numbers of people living in a certain area
dissenters people that disagree with the policies or laws of a leader or country
constitutional government a type of government whose power is defined and limited by law
cabinet advisors to the ruler; the term originally meant the advisors from parliament (similar to our Congress) who met with their king in a small room known as a "cabinet"
prime minister the head of the cabinet, eventually this position became the top government official of England and other countries, having more power than the monarchs in these countries
oligarchy (review word) power to run the country is held by a relatively small group of people
natural law a body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct; an observable law relating to natural phenomena
social contract an agreement between people and their leader. The citizens willingly give up their freedom in exchange for strong leadership that brings order and organization to a society
natural rights rights that some people believe all humans are entitled to from birth because they are human beings such as life, liberty and the right to own property
philosophy the study of the basic ideas about knowledge, truth, right and wrong, religion, and the nature and meaning of life
rococo (of furniture or architecture) of or characterized by an elaborately ornamental late baroque style of decoration prevalent in 18th-century Continental Europe, with asymmetrical patterns involving motifs and scrollwork
laizzez-faire a doctrine (way of thinking) opposing governmental interference in economic affairs - this way of thinking believes that the government helps the economy best by NOT making laws that protect consumers or interfere with how a business can conduct its work
free market the natural forces of supply and demand are allowed to determine the success of a business; an economic market operating by free competition,the government DOESN'T try make the competition equal through laws instead businesses compete for profits
salon informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers and other intellectuals discussed ideas related to the arts, government structure, philosophy, science, literature, etc.,
baroque a very decorative and fancy (ornate) style of art and architecture popular in the 1600 and 1700s in Europe
logic reasoned (thought through thoroughly) and reasonable judgment
enlightened despot an absolute ruler who used his/her power to bring about political and social change
popular sovereignty basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power & government can exist only with the consent of the people governed
federal republic government in which power is divided between the national (federal) government and the states
checks and balances counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
nationalism a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country ( the downside is that people can blindly follow corrupt leaders of nationalism without questioning the things they are told by the state which can lead to violent behavior towards minority groups
deficit spending a situation in which a government spends more money than it takes in
Estates-General legislative body made up of representatives of the three estates in prerevolutionary France
Bastille a fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. The storming (breaking into and taking control of) of this prison by Parisians started the French Revolution in 1789
faction a group of people that disagree with the larger group they belong to
suffrage the right to vote
sans-culotte working class men or women who made the French Revolution more radical. They were called this because the members wore long pants instead of fancy knee length short pants that gathered around the knee which was the style of the upper class men
estates the three social classes in France before the revolution: clergy, nobility and everyone else
annex to add a territory to an existing state or country
guerrilla warfare a fighting style that involves ambushes and hit-and-run raids
abdicate to give up or step down from a position of power
Reign of Terror Sept 1793 - July 1794 a time period during the French Revolution when people in France were arrested for not supporting the revolution. Many of those arrested were executed.
Napoleonic Code a group of French laws introduced in 1804 which served as a model for many other nations' civil codes. It contained ideas from the Enlightenment such as equality of all citizens before the law
Congress of Vienna an assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together which met from Sept 1814-June1815
Concert of Europe a system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia and Great Britain met periodically (every so often) to discuss any problems affecting the peace in Europe. This came out of the Quadruple Alliance
Jacobins a revolutionary political club made up of mostly middle class lawyers or intellectuals who pushed for radical changes in the laws and social structure of France
Created by: ashbjj01