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Chapter12 Rubenstein


Service Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
Settlement A permanent collection of buildings, where people reside, work, and obtain services.
Consumer services Provides services to individual consumers that desire them and can afford to pay for them.
Retail Services Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
Personal services Provide services for the well being and personal improvement of the individual consumers.
Business services Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
Producer Services Services that primarily help people conduct business.
Transportation and information services Businesses that diffuse and distribute services
Public Services Services that provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
Clustered rural settlements A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Dispersed rural settlement A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Enclosure movement The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Central place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted by the surrounding area.
Central place theory It explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and more apart than smaller settlements and provide services for more people who are willing to travel.
Market area or Hinterland The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
Range The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Threshold The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Gravity model Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Rank Size rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Primate city rule A pattern of settlements in country, such that the largest settlement gas more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement.
Primate city The largest city in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement.
Basic industries Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Nonbasic Industries Industries that sell their product primarily to consumers in the community.
Economic base A community’s collection of basic industries.
Created by: WestonSandfort
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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