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Errede - Exam2

Hormones and regulation

sensor cell produces hormones in response to specific stimuli from the external environment
target cell has receptor for hormones - hormone binding to the receptor causes the target cell to respond by changing cellular functions
hormones intercellular information carriers between sensor cells and target cells - hormones are responsible for coordinating activities of different cells in a multicellular organism
receptors proteins that bind hormones with high specificity and affinity
endocrine hormones produced by endocrine glands and transported to target cells in the circulatory system
paracrine hormones produced by cells that are in close proximity to target cells
autocrine hormones produced by cells that are also the target of action
hydrophillic hormones bind to receptors on the outer surface of the cell
lipophilic hormones bind to intracellular receptors
g-protein coupled receptor ligand bound receptor activates heterotrimeric g-protein that regulates the activity of effector proteins in the plasma membrane (typically enz. or ion channels that increase the concentration of second messengers)
enzyme receptor extracellular domain binds to polypeptide hormones and cytoplasmic domain with enz. activity
cytokine receptor usually composed of 2+ subunits - cytoplasmic domains associate with Jak tyrosine kinases to pass the "message"
ion-channel receptors mediate the action of small # of neurotransmitters - NT binding causes transient opening of ion channels
what is the second messenger for Adenylate cyclase cAMP
what is the second messenger for Guanylate cyclase cGMP
what is the second messenger for Phospholipase C Phosphatidylinositol system: DAG + IP3
what is the second messenger for Ion Channels Calcium
Function of protein kinases transfer the gamma phosphate group from ATP to the OH of ser, thr, or tyr
function of protein phosphatases reverse kinase action by hydrolyzing the phospho residue to the free OH form
Gs stimulates Adenylate cyclase, second messenger = cAMP
Gi inhibits Adenylate cyclase, second messenger = cAMP
Gq stimulates Phospholipase C Beta, second messengers =IP3, DAG, + Ca2+
G12 stimulates ion channels
SH2 domain binds to short peptide motifs of proteins with phosphtyrosine
PTB domains bind to short peptide motifs of proteins containing phosphotyrosine OR tyrosine
SH3 domains bind to proline rich motifs
PH domains promote associations with phospholipids of membranes and possibly to integral membrane proteins
progestins come from stromal cells of the corpus luteum
androgens come from leydig cells of the testis AND reticularis cells of the adrenal cortex
estrogens come from theca and granulosa cells of ovary
glucocorticoids come from fasciculata cells of the adreal cortex
mineralocorticoids come from glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex
Physiological action of Aldosterone FLUID BALANCE Retention of Na+ and H20, Excretion of K+ and H+, increased vasoconstriction
Physiological action of Cortisol STRESS RESPONSE regulation of metabolism to maximize fuel for cells, down regulate immune response
Physiological action of Androsteinedione + Testosterone male sex characteristics
Physiological action of Estrone + Estradiol female sex characteristics
Affected steroids and physiological effects of 21alpha-hydroxylase deficiency decreased cortisol and aldosterone, increased androgens --> increased ACTH, decreased porter-silber reaction, increased zimmerman reaction
affected steroids and physiological effects of 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency decreased cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, increased 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, androgens --> increased ACTH, increased Na and H20 retention, masculinization, increased porter-silber reaction, increased zimmerman reaction
Created by: MouserKat