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Chapter 12

Pathology – Bronchial, Pleura & Lung disorders

QuestionAnswer
Asthma: Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and the and increased mucus production.
Bronchiectasis: Chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection.
Chronic bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Cystic fibrosis (CF) Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucinous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally.
Atelectasis Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of the alveoli.
Emphysema: Hyperinflation of the air sacs with destruction of the alveolar walls reasonable in expiratory flow limitation.
Lung cancer; Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and the bronchi. Lung cancers are divided into two general categories:(NSCLC) non-small cell lung cancer and (SCLC) small cell lung cancer.
Pneumoconiosis: Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.
Pneumonia: IQ inflammation and infection of the alveoli, which fill with pus or product of the inflammatory reaction.
Lobar pneumonia : Involves an entire lobe of the lung.
Pulmonary abscess: Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.
Pulmonary edema : Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles. This condition is most often caused by the inability of the heart to pump blood (congestive heart failure).
Pulmonary embolism (PE): Clot or other material launches in the vessels of the lung. The clot (embolus) travels from distant veins, usually in the legs. Occlusion can produce an area of dead (necrotic) tissue; this is a pulmonary infarction.
Pulmonary fibrosis: Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs.
Sarcoidosis : chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomatous) develop in lungs, lymph nose, and other organs.
Tuberculosis (TB): Infectious disease caused by (Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected. Rod shaped bacteria called bacilli invade the lungs, producing small tubercles (swelling) of infection
Mesothelioma: Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura.these two matters are caused by asbestos exposure.
Pleural effusion :abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity). Two types of pleural infusion are Exudates (fluid from tumors and infections) and Transudates(fluid from congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or cirrhosis.
Pleurisy: inflammation of the pleura. This condition causes plural pleurodynia, dyspnea and, in chronic cases, pleural effusion.
Pneumothorax; collection of air in the pleural space.
Created by: Bowiegirl
 

 



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