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AP Human Geo Unit I

AP Human Geo Unit I 2016

Physical Geography deals with Earth's natural processes and their outcomes
Human Geography reveals how and why geographical relationships are important
Regional Geography regions have similar attributes distinct from those of other places
Political Ecology an approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environment issues both reflect, and the result of the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated
Natural Landscape the realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface
Cultural Ecology a geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relatinships
Cultural Landscape the fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group; built landscape
Carl Sauer Cultural Landscapes should be fundamental focus of geography
George Perkins Marsh "Man and Nature" or "Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action"
Eratosthenes first to use the word "geography" - determined circumference of the earth
Cartography art and science of making maps
Scale ratio between the distance on a map and the actual distance on Earth's surface
Large Scale depict smaller areas (maps of neighborhood or local area)
Small Scale depict larger areas (maps of world or continents)
Projection a system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
Mercator Projection cylindrical projections - preserves accurate compass direction, distorts landmasses relative to each other
Peters Projection cylindrical projection that retains the accurate sizes of all world's landmasses
Mollweide Projection Pseudo cylindrical projection - central meridian and parallels straight, but not other meridians
Robinson Projection minimizes errors in area, shape, distance, and direction - aesthetically pleasing balance
Azimuthal Projection planar projections - formed when flat piece of paper is placed on top of the globe and light source projects surrounding areas on the map
Goodes-Homolosine Projection interrupted equal area map projection used for data representation
Fuller Projection maintains accurate size and shape of landmasses, but completely rearranges direction
Climate Maps general information about the climate and precipitation of a region
Economic or Resource Maps feature the type of natural resources or economic activity that dominated an area
Physical Maps illustrate the physical features of an area, such as mountains, rivers, and lakes; colors are used to show relief - differences in land elevations
Political Maps indicate state and national boundaries and capital and major cities
Cartogram present statistics in a pictorial way; might show countries of the world in their proper map position, but with each country distorted to a size proportionate to its population
Topographic Maps include contour (isoline) lines to show the shape and elevation of an area; lines that are close together indicate steep terrain, lines that are far apart indicate flat terrain
Dot Maps use points to show precise locations of specific observations or occurrences; show frequency of events or phenomon
Choropleth Maps use colors or tonal shadings to represent categories of data for given geographic areas
Flow-Line Maps typically use arrows to illustrate movement
Cognitive Maps inform people's spatial behavior; individual internal geographic understandings of a place
Remote Sensing Acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods
Global Positioning Systems a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites
Geographic Information System a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes and displays geographic data in layers
Place a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Toponym name given to a place on Earth
Site describes the physical characteristics where a settlement is located
Situation describes where a place is in relation to its surroundings
Regional Studies an approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Region an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Formal Region an area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region an area organized around a node o focal point, importance diminishes outward
Distance Decay the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Vernacular Region an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Culture the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
Globalization the expansion of economic, political, and cultural activities to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the world
Transnational Corporation a company that conducts research, operates factories, sells products in many countries, not just where is headquarters or shareholders are located
Space the physical gap or interval between 2 objects
Spatial Perspective observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
Spatial Distribution physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Spatial Interaction the movement (e.g. of people, goods, information) between places; an indication of interdependence between different geographic locations or areas
Complementarity degree to which one place can supply something that another place demands
Transferability costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
Connectivity the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
Accessibility important factor in the cost of goods and services
Distribution the arrangement and organization of a feature in space
Density the frequency at which something occurs in space
Concentration the spread of a variable over a given area
Pattern the geometric or regular arrangement in a study area
Diffusion process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
Hearth place from which an innovation originates
Relocation Diffusion spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Expansion Diffusion spread of a feature from central node or hearth to another through various means
Hierarchical Diffusion spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Contagious Diffusion rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
Stimulus Diffusion spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
Space-Time Compression the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Friction of Distance a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Environmental Determinism an early 20th century approach created by von Humbolt and Ritter which stated that human behaviors are a direct result of their environment
Possibilism a present day theory created by Da Blache that the physical environment may limit human action, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Created by: jasperez13
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