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Year End Review

colonial power the country that controls a colony; synonym for imperialist nation
constitution a plan for how the government will workcoup d'etat
colony a settlement in a new land that is still controlled by the home country
colonization the process of building colonies
imperialism when a strong country controls the government and/or economy of a weaker country
isolationism the country closes itself off to the rest of the world and does not get involved in the affairs of other countries
mercantilism an economic system where the colony produces raw materials and is only allowed to trade with the colonial power
militarism the belief that a strong military is of the highest importance and that war brings glory to a country
nationalism wanting a powerful country and having a strong love and loyalty towards your country based on shared culture and a desire for self-rule
apartheid laws that require separating the races
aristocrat a wealthy landowner; synonym for noble
entrepreneur a person who starts their own business
peasant a poor farmer
social contract an agreement between the ruler of a country and the people who live there
appeasement giving into a country's demands in order to avoid war
alliance an agreement between two or more countries to help one another if war broke out
front where the fighting in a battle takes place
neutral not on either side
reparations payments for war damages
genocide the killing of an entire race of people
revolution a dramatic change
superpower an extremely powerful nation that is capable of influencing the laws and policies of other nations
separation of powers the power of government is divided so that no one person or group has too much power
turning point an event that changes the outcome of a situation
capitalism an economic system based on competition and freedom from government interference; synonym for free enterprise
urbanization moving from rural areas to cities
constitutional monarchy a type of government where a king or queen has limited power
clergy religious officials
bourgeoisie middle class of society
astrolabe a device that helped explorers determine their latitude
compass a device that helped explorers determine what direction they were going
caravel a small lightweight ship with triangular sails
divine right the belief that God gave a person the authority to rule
communism an economic system where the government controls all factors of production and private property is not allowed
democracy a type of government where decisions are made by elected representatives
plantation a large area of farmland used for planting and harvesting cash crops
domino theory the belief that if Vietnam became communist other countries in southeast Asia would also become communist
containment a policy to stop the spread of communism
occupy when the military of one country controls another country
non-industrialized a country where most products are manufactured by hand
industrialized a country where most products are manufactured using machinery
textiles things made of cloth
depression a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment
perestroika an economic program that loosened the way the government controlled businesses and allowed some private property and profit
demilitarized zone an area where the military is not allowed
glasnost a policy that allowed people to disagree with the government and participate more in the government
absolutism a political system in which a ruler has total power
armistice a temporary stop in battle
blockade the closing off of a port or harbor to prevent entrance or exit
boycott to protest by refusing to do something
cash crops crops grown in large amounts to be sold for profit
circumnavigate to go completely around something such as the world
commerce an exchange of goods
cottage industry making goods in workers' homes
deforestation cutting down trees and forests in an area
export a good that is sent from one country to another
import an good that is brought into a country from another country
geocentric the idea that the earth is the center of the universe
heliocentric the idea that the sun is the center of the universe
guerrilla warfare a form of war in which soldiers make surprise attacks on the enemy
inflation a period of rapidly increasing prices
invest to put money into a new business in hopes of making a profit
immigrant a person who moves to another country and settles there
labor union a group of people with similar jobs who work to improve wages and working conditions
limited government a government whose powers are restricted through laws or a constitution
propaganda biased information used to influence public opinion
sphere of influence a region where only one imperialist nation had the right to invest or trade
favorable balance of trade exporting more than importing
merchant a person whose business is trade
Created by: lcarson