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HWH Ch.13 Test

Ch.13 Test Review

The Middle Ages were... A medieval period from 500-1500 A.D.
What are some results of Germanic invasions on the Roman Empire? Disruption of Trade, Downfall of Cities, Population Shifts, Decline of Learning (because of lack of stability), and the Loss of a Common Language (latin).
What were some characteristics of Germanic tribes? Couldn't read or write, had no written language, disrupted trade (in Rome).
What happened after the Latin language changed/fell? Once Latin changed, languages like Spanish & French began surfacing by the 800s. The development of these languages mirrored the continued breakup of a once-unified empire.
What were some factors that led to the decline of learning after Germanic tribes invaded Rome? Once germanic invaders settled into rome, the fact that they couldn't read or write took its toll on the romans, after many of them left for rural areas. few people except priests were literate and could read Greek works which was important to the culture
Who was Clovis? Leader of the Franks (united them) who would bring Christianity to the region. After praying to god and winning a battle against a Germanic invaders he had 3,000 of his men baptized. Alliance with church marked the start of two powerful forces joining
Who was Charlemagne and what did he accomplish? Also known as "Charles the Great" was a Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800. Strengthened his power by limiting the authority of nobles.
What did the Treaty of Verdun state? Divided the Carolingian Empire into 3 sections, to be split between the three sons of Charlemagne who were feuding over how to share the empire, signed in 843
Who were the Franks? Group of Germanic people who settled in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he brought Christianity into their region. By 511, the Franks were united as one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
Who were the Vikings? Also known as "Norsemen" or "Northmen" these Germanic/Scandanavian people raided Europe from the 700s until the 1100s. Raided monastries , worshipped warlike gods, took prideful nicknames, carried out raids with terrifying speed. Ventured Russia-Con.nople
What was feudalism and why was it an important social order? a political system in which a lord was a landowner who could grants their land (fiefs) to a vassal, who in turn would provide loyalty and service. structured like a pyramid--king, church official/nobles, knights, and peasants.
What was the manor system? a set of rights between a lord and his serf. Lord provided housing and protection and in return the serfs farmed the land and looked over domestic animals.
Chivalry complex set of ideas, demanded that a knight devotes himself/fights bravely in defense of three masters, his earthly feudal lord, his heavenly lord, and his chosen lady.
Troubadors medieval poet/musician who traveled from place to place entertaining people w/ songs of courtly love
Who was Eleanor of Aquitane? A powerful french duchess who married Henry II of England and ruled all of England and 1/2 of France. Was the mother of King Richard the Lion Hearted and King John.
What were Women's Roles in a Feudal Society? Women were powerless, like most men. Had the burden of being thought inferior to men and this was the view of the church and was generally accepted in a feudal society.
What could a Noblewomen do? Could inherit an estate from her husband, Upon a lord's request, could also send his knights to war. When her husband is off fighting, the lady might act as military commander/warrior. Play a key role in defending castles. Confirmed to activities of home.
What could a Peasant Women do? Life remained unchanged. Performed endless labor around home and in fields, bore children, and took care of their families. Poor and Powerless. Economic contribution was essential to the survival of the peasant household.
Sacraments importnat religious ceremonies in the Church, that helped pave the way to salvation. (e.g. Baptism, Communion, Marriage)
What was interdict and what was its significance? Pope can forbid sacraments, which is used to punish people who went against the Pope.
Canon Laws and their importance to the Church? Church's system of justice in matters such as marriage or religious practices. Established courts to try people who violated canon law. Church emerged as the real power throughout fragmented Europe.
What was the Social Hierarchy of clergy? Pope (Head of Church) Bishops Priests - Lowest member of Clergy
What was a clergy? A body of officials who performed religious services--such as priests, ministers, or rabbis.
Who was Henry IV? fought against the Pope over power to choose church officials and was excommunicated from the church. Begged from 3 days in the cold for forgiveness until the Pope accepted it.
Pope Gregory VII? excommunicated Henry VI. Thought Popes should have power to name bishops. Extended his power to secular matters instead of spiritual matters.
Frederick I? "Barbarossa" because of his red beard. German King who ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1190.
What groups invaded Rome? Vikings (Scandinavians), Magyars (Turkish Nomads who settled in Hungary), Anglo-Saxons ( settled in England), and the Muslims.
What was the legacy of Charlemagne? Built a great empire who conquered most of Europe by fighting the Muslims and tribes from other Germanic kingdoms. Spread Christianity through conquests. Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III after crushing an unruly mob. Cont.
What was the legacy of Charlemagne (cont.)? Limited nobles authority, governed empire by sending out royal agents. Regularly visited each part of his kingdom. Encouraged learning by surrounding himself with English, German, Italian, etc. scholars. Opened a palace school. Opened monasteries.
What was the dispute between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII? Pope Gregory was against the lay investiture system, because the Bishops were obtaining positions in irregular ways. The King was all for it because he wanted his men to obtain positions. Henry IV was then excommunicated from the Church, from which he...
Henry IV and PG VII cont? spent 3 days in the cold begging for the Pope to forgive him. The pope was obligated to forgive he who begged so humbly, so he ended his excommunication and in the end humiliated Henry.
Created by: toastyghosty