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WVSOM Tlymphocytes

WVSOM T lymphocytes lecture 8 immuno

What are thymus derived lymphocytes? T cell
What percentage of blood lymphocytes are made of T cells? 60-90%
Where do T-cell progenitors develop? birth in bone marrow and migrate to the Thymus gland to get their education and develop
Where are the T cells? the majority of the lymphocytes in a patients blood about 60 to 90 %
What are the major functions of T cells? some are killer cells they will kill an infected cell or tumor cell, but a lot act as regulator to control the immune response by helping b cells by helping macrophages and other T cells
Do T cells have any inhibitory function? yes they can suppress an immune response it will be a major player in bringing the immune response back to normal after it has kicked in
Only T cells that do not respond to self are the ones released from where? thymus
What are some regulator functions of T cells? helper functions, cytotoxic function
What are the helper function of the T cells involve B cells? include helping B cells form antibody
We can divide most of the T cells into two groups of expression what are they? CD4, and CD8
What are the function of T cells with CD4 or CD8 expression? CD4 are helpers or regulators, CD8 are cytotoxic its going to kill another cell
All functional cells will have what type of CD proteins? CD3
What are the major subset of CD8 expressed T cells? killer cells
The major subsets of CD4 are what? TH1, TH2, TH17, and so called regulatory cells
How do you define the subsets of CD4 T cells? they are defined by the cytokines they produce
TH1 which are CD4 positive T cells express what cytokine? interferon gamma
What do type 1 interferons do? have an inhibitory effect on viral
What is the main function of interferon gamma? primarily activate macrophages to increase their phagocyte ability so they can kill things intracellularly better than a normal macrophage
TH2 helper T cells are defined by what cytokines? Interleukin 4, IL 5, IL 6, IL 10, IL 13
What do all of the interleukins that TH2 express have in common? they help B cells become activated and release antibody so they help to regulate antibody responses by helping B cells
What immunoglobulin does IL4 help to produce? IgE
Do TH1 interact with TH2? yes they interact and regulate one another
TH17 are a new set of T cells that produce what cytokine? IL 17
What is the function of TH17? they participate in the inflammatory response they help to recruit neutrophils
What is the function of T regulatory cells? they inhibit, they suppress the immune response
One of the regulatory T cells that is seen often expresses CD4 and may also express what? inhibitory cytokines being; transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) and IL10
What cytokines tend to have inhibitory activities? Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and IL 10 produced by regulatory T cells
What are the main two recognition types on T cell receptors and what do they form? alpha and beta, they form domains and those domains can form a variable region on top and constant on bottom
Just like the antibody on the B cell receptor, the T cell receptor has very little cytoplasmic component so how does it send a signal down to the nucleus? other proteins associated with it that has significant cytoplasmic components and some of these we call CD3
What is CD3 and what is it involved in? a group of proteins on the surface of all T cells and they are involved in activating T cells
Why do we have so much variability in T cell receptors? Each of those proteins of a T cell receptor is encoded by different gene segments of which we have several to chose from and different combinations of that gene segment creates all that variability.
What are the regions that the alpha receptor on a T cell can choose from? V, J, C
What about the beta region on the T cell what are the regions it can choose from? V,D,J,C
What is involved in the signal that activates the T cell after it comes in contact with the antigen? The signal involves kinase enzymes involving a phosphorilation reaction in a cascading event that also involves intracellular calcium
What is the end result of all the phosporilation reactions in the presence of calcium in a T cell? the activation of transcription factors which tells the cell to transcribe or translate cytokines or to go into the growth cycle or do something else
Why is CD 3 so important to the T cell? they are there with the receptor, when the receptor binds to an antigen the CD3 becomes phosphorilated and the cascade starts
Where do the T cells come from? they develop and mature in the thymus gland
What happens if it recognizes self? they die by apoptosis in the thymus gland
So what happens to T cells in the thymus? Mature form a functional T cell receptor, those that bind to strongly to self are eliminated as part of the education process, and they form a receptor that will bind to peptides in the proper context
What happens to the T cells once they have matured? they go to secondary lymphoid tissue if they encounter antigen they will be activated and does its effector function or become memory cells
What is the principal effect of IL 2? T cell growth, T and B proliferation
What is the principal effect of IL 3? growth of early hematopoietic progenitor cells
What is the principal effect of IL 4? B cell proliferation ; IgE production
What is the principal effect of IL 10? inhibits macrophage and dendritic cells
What is the principal effect of IL 13? IL 4 like effects
What is the principal effect of IL 17? induces inflammatory cytokines and PMN
What is the principal effect of INF gamma? macrophage activation
What is the principal effect of TGF beta? inhibitory; anti-inflammatory
How can you tell if the patient has a certain quantity of T cells in the blood? flow cytometer with antibodies
How do you differentiate CD4 from CD8? antibodies
What would be the effect of depleting CD4 T cells on an individual’s ability to resist infection? extremely devastating because all the helper and antigen presenting cells are CD4 positive
Created by: hagerman