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WVSOM MHC immuno

WVSOM MHC lecture 9 immuno

What are the antigens primarily responsible for the rejection of tissues, cells, or organs from genetically dissimilar donors? histocompatibility antigens
What are the histocompatibility antigens the ones that are responsible for the greatest immune response? the ones from MHC major histocompatibility complex
Where is MHC located in humans? chromosome 6
What is the function of the MHC genes? they encode cell surface proteins that are critical to the immune response that discriminate self from non-self
What is the critical role of the MHC gene in every day immune response? present peptides to T cells
Class 1 or Class 2 genes are what in chromosome 6? MHC genes
How many different Class one genes are there? 3; A,B, and C
Class 2 MHC genes will encode what, and how many different types? DP, DQ and DR, there will be two different types alpha and beta
Where do we find class 1 MHC molecules? on the surface of all nucleated cells so every cell in the body other than erythrocytes
What do class 1 MHC molecules do? they have a binding pocket that contains a peptide so the T cell sees the binding pocket with the peptide its about 7that the T cell will recognize
What do class 2 MHC molecules do? encode DP,DQ, DR genes of which there are 2 alpha and beta for each one
Where do you find class2 MHC molecules? primerarly on the surface membrane of antigen presenting cells (APCs) dendritic cells, macrophages ect.
What do class 2 MHC molecules do? same thing as class 1 MCH they have a pocket with a peptide
What is an allele? one of several alternate forms of a gene at a single locus that controls a particular characteristic
Example of Class 1 alleles are HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C, What does HLA stand for and how many known alleles are there for each of these examples? HLA = human leukocyte antigen, 218,439,96
What type of alleles do class 1 gene encode for T cells? HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C
Which alleles do class 2 genes of T cells encode? HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP, each with an alpha and beta form
Why is it important to have all this variablity encluded in the alleles? each pocket can have a range of peptides in there, each allele will have a different range of peptides it can display, so that some important peptide will be displayed so the T cell can recognize something from almost every pathogen you may encounter
Haplotype is what and how many do we have? a group of all the genes you inherit on one chromosome, 2 one from mom and one from dad
What is the crucial function for HLA proteins? to present peptides to T-lymphocytes
What is the beta 2 microglobulin always expressed with? class 1 protein
In the peptide binding cleft what do you have? peptide
In general CD8 positive T cells (killer cells) will only recognize peptide on what type of MHC molecule? class 1 MHC molecules
Where are class 1 MHC molecules found? on all nucleated cells
In general CD4 positive T cells (regulator, helper cells) will only recognize peptide on what type of MHC molecule? class 2 MHC molecules
Where are class 2 MHC molecules found? on antigen presenting cells
Where does the binding of CD4 to its MHC molecule happen? in the lymphoid tissue
What is relative risk? the chance an individual with disease associated HLA antigen has of developing the disease compared with an individual who lacks that antigen
If you find the HLA allele DR2 what disease and relative risk would your patient have? multiple sclerosis, 4
If you find the HLA allele DR2/3 what disease and relative risk would your patient have? SLE, 4
If you find the HLA allele DR3 what disease and relative risk would your patient have? Sjogren’s syndrome, 10; and Type 1 diabetes, 5
If you find the HLA allele DR4 what disease and relative risk would your patient have? Rheumatoid art, 6
If you find the HLA allele DR3/4 what disease and relative risk would your patient have? Type 1 diabetes, 20
If you find the HLA allele DR27 what disease and relative risk would your patient have? Ankylosing spondylitis, 90
What is the role of MHC in organ tissue graft rejections? recognition of non-self MHC by recipient T-cells is the major initiating factor for allograft rejection, make sure to try and match MHC to minimize rejection
The drug Cyclosporine does what, and what role does it play in transplantation? inhibits T cell activation, inhibits some cytokine production and inhibits the immune response that rejects organ transplants
What are serologic tests to detect HLA antibodies in transplant cadidates? antibody screening
What technique uses PCR amplification and DNA sequencing? DNA typing
What is the purpose of the technique known as cross match? to detect antibody in the patient’s serum that react against HLA antigens of the potential donor
What characteristics distinguish class 1 from class 2 HLA proteins? location, class 1 on all cells Class 2 on antigen presenting cells; total proteins encoded, Class 1 encodes one, class 2 encodes 2 an alpha and beta; molecules presented to, Class 1 to CD8, class 2 to CD4
How can HLA make up influence immune response to particular pathogen? each persons HLA make up is different, if unable to display peptide to pathogen then unable to recognize and fight off
Created by: hagerman