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World History Quarter 3 Final Review Packet

What did the process by which an African person became enslaved in the Americas entail? Africans were captured by other Africans and then sold to Europeans
Why were the Portuguese the first to explore other lands? Portugal had superior ship technology and navigational schools funded and supported by Prince Henry the navigator
What is mercantilism? The belief that wealth was fixed and measured in gold and silver. This led to needing a favorable balance of trade, exports are of greater value than imports, and colonies needed to be gained
When does a country have a favorable balance of trade? When the amount of exports a country has is greater than the amount of imports
How did The Catholic Church contribute to the colonization of Latin America? They sent missionaries and build churches, convents, schools. They worked to Christianize native populations
What were the effects of the slave trade on African societies? Dramatic population loss, families torn apart, oral histories and traditions lost, increased civil war, decrease in productivity due to fittest members of society being taken
Why were African slaves imported to work in the encomienda system in Latin America? Many American natives had died from disease. Africans came from similar climates and were skilled farmers.
Why did Europeans begin to explore and expand in the 1500s? Part 1 Europeans had improved technology over the centuries so that they could cross the Atlantic. They also were inspired by Renaissance curiosity and the need to discover a direct route to India.
Why did Europeans begin to explore and expand in the 1500s? Part 2 Once the new world was discovered European countries sent expeditions for Gold, God and Glory
What was The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494? The treaty settled a dispute between Spain and Portugal. The current pope determined that all territories on the East side of the line of demarcation were for Portugal and all lands West of the line were for Spain.
Why could only peninsulares hold important government positions in Latin America? Penninsulares were born in Spain, only they could hold gov’t positions because their loyalty would be to the Spanish crown and their homeland. Peninsulares were raised and educated in Spain
What was the Middle Passage? The portion of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade that brought slaves from Africa to the New World
When trading with their Latin-American colonies, what did Spain and Portugal mainly export? Silver
What advantage did better weaponry give Spanish conquistadors over the Aztec and Inca empires? Their swords were strong and flexible, guns were fearsome. Native people had never seen them, so the loud noise and spark made them think they were instruments of the gods
What is the correct list of social classes from colonial Latin America from highest to lowest? Peninsulares, creoles, mestizo/mulatto, natives/slaves
Who conquered the Aztecs? Cortes
Who conquered the Inca? Pizarro
What was the driving force behind exploration and conquest? Glory, God and Gold
How did the Safavids use religion to unify their empire? They declare Shia the state religion
What were the roles of women like in Ottoman society? They were improved from many other Muslim women in other societies. Women had some legal rights, they could inherit property
Why is Aurangzeb considered to be one of India’s most controversial rulers? He expanded the empire to its greatest size but violently oppressed Hindus
What religion did Akbar, like all Mogul rulers, practice? Islam (he was a muslim)
Whom did Akbar’s rule bring together to practice religious tolerance? Hindus
How were The Ottoman Turks able to expand their empire? They conquered Constantinople a strategic site. They used firepower and a strong military to expand
What were the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mogul Empires known as? Gunpowder empires
When the Ottomans gained control of the trade crossroads of Constantinople how did Europeans respond? They were forced to find other routes to India, unless they wanted to deal with the Ottomans
What did the Ottoman's rename Constantinople? Istanbul
What were the accomplishments of the Ming dynasty? Running an efficient and effective government
What kingdom was known as the Hermit Kingdom? Korea
How did population change during the Ming and Qing dynasties? Population exponentially increased during the Qing Dynasty with stability.
What extended beyond the Chinese family and included dozens, or even hundreds, of related families? Clan
Whom did Chinese families hold in high regard? Their elderly
Why did the Qing allow European traders to work only on one small island? To limit the amount of contact Chinese had with the Europeans
What helps to explain why a rigid social structure evolved in Japan during the Tokugawa Era? Policy of isolation and the need to be self-sufficient
Why did Japan remain isolated from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century? Japan prohibited Christian activities and restricted trade
Why was the footbinding of Chinese women so culturally accepted and important? Young women had a better chance of marrying into an upper class family. The practice goes back to traditional cultural beliefs of China.
What was the order of the four main classes during the Tokugawa era, from highest to lowest? Warriors, Peasants, Artisans, Merchants
Who was Zheng He? Eunuch in charge of the Ming Treasure Fleets
Why were the Treasure Fleets so important to the Ming Dynasty? Hint - What were the Ming trying to accomplish The Ming wanted to spread Diplomacy, promote trade, and collect tributes
Why did the Qing destroy the Treasure Fleets? They felt the Ming created an economic hardship on China and wanted to move back to traditional Chinese practices
What were the Opium Wars and why did they happen? Fought between the Qing and the British for control of trade (opium trade)
What cultural and social changes took place during the Qing Dynasty? Manchus preserved identity, literature was censored and focused on classical forms, males had to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles, women were prone to foot binding and remained subordinate to their husbands.
What was the overriding policy for trade in Southeast Asia at this time? Isolated and restricted
Who did the Ming overthrow to take control of the next Dynasty? Mongols
Where were the Qing rulers from? Manchuria
What did Francis Bacon’s scientific method use? Reasoning
To Voltaire and many other philosophes, what was the belief of the universe? The planets revolved around the sun
What was Montesquieu’s most lasting contribution to political thought? System of government in which separation of powers caused each part of government to check the other in terms of control and limiting powers
What is the most important difference between the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system? Ptolemy thought planets revolved around Earth (center) and Copernicus discovered the planets revolve around the sun
Monarchs who tried to govern by Enlightenment principles practiced what type of rule? Enlightened absolutism
Who (which group) challenged many of these enlightenment ideas? The Church
What were the First, Second, Third Estates? Why were these estates created? First Estate-Clergy/Church Second Estate-Nobility Third Estate-Everyone else (peasant farmers to wealthy businessmen) Estates were created for taxation purposes
Who were the bourgeoisie? Wealthy upper middle class members of the Third Estate
What is a Constitutional Monarchy and why was this important to the French Revolution? This is what France ended with after the fall of Napoleon. The Constitutional Monarchy is a government where monarch rules, but power is limited by a constitution, thus guaranteeing rights to the people.
What is a government where a monarch rules, but power is limited by a constitution, thus guaranteeing rights to the people? Constitutional Monarchy
Created by: PLHSWorld1